• CABOCHON

    or cabouchon


    is a gemstone which has been shaped and polished to rounded, domed surface with no facets.
    The resulting form is usually a convex top with a flat back, although the term is used to mean any deliberate shape that is not facetted.

    Cabochon cut is usually applied to opaque gems, while faceting is usually applied to transparent stones.

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  • CABS


    is a short term for cabochons

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  • CALCITE




    is a very common mineral that comes in seemingly unlimited variety of forms, shapes and colors.
    The translucent to transparent crystals range from white, yellow, red, orange, blue, green, brown to gray, to colorless and to even more shades and combination.

    Transparent calcite exhibits a double refraction effect (when you look through the crystal, single items are doubled).

    Calcite has a hardness of 3, a specific gravity of about 2.7, and refractive index of 1.49 - 1.66.

    Mexico and the USA are the major sources of calcite, but in smaller quantities it is found all around the world.

    Ultrasonic cleaning is risky for this gemstone.

    Cool soapy water is the safest cleanser for calcite, but avoid water with a low-pH acidic nature.



    Alleged metaphysical properties

    sometimes referred to as the "Amplifier" calcite is reputed to increase and amplify energy.

    Among crystal healers it is considered to be a protecting, grounding and balancing gem.

    Calcite is said to facilitate appreciation of the creative forces of nature. It is an excellent stone when studying the arts and sciences.

    It is considered the premier cleanser of stored negative energies in the human system, and one that works on all levels. It can be used to clear not only internal negativity, but also to clear potential
    negativity in the surrounding environment.

    All calcites are reported helpful in reducing stress and diminishing fear.

    Calcite can be used to aid healing of diseases associated with the improper functioning of the kidneys, pancreas, and spleen.

    All varieties of calcites have the basic properties noted above. Nevertheless, each specific variety of calcite, is also associated with some specific properties.

    Blue calcite is known to amplify energy in the realms of communication and thought. It facilitates communication between people with opposing views.

    Green calcite is said to be a grounding and balancing stone that brings stability.

    It is also considered helpful for overcoming addictions and compulsive disorders.

    Honey calcite (a.k.a. amber calcite, gold calcite) is a stone that assists in the challenges associated with change.

    Yellow calcite is known to boosts one's general energy level.

    Orange calcite is said to help restore mental and emotional equilibrium.

    Red calcite is beneficial for conditions where detoxification is necessary, such as food poisoning or alcoholism recovery.

    Manganocalcite (a.k.a. Pink Magnesium Calcite) is believed to be a highly effective stress reliever.

    Clear calcite can be used for treating all conditions. It is said to be especially good antiseptic agent and great catalyst used for detoxification.



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  • CAMEO


    is a small piece of hard stone carved in relief;

    It is also a common name for a method of relief carving on a shell or stone or an item of jewellery made in this manner.

    A cameo is usually made of two types of material, commonly precious or semi-precious stone.

    One material is carved into a figure - the most common type being a profile portrait of a person's head.

    This is then set upon the other type of material which provides a background of another color to set off the figure.

    Cameos of great artistry were made in Greece dating back as far as the 6th century BC.

    During past centuries cameos have gone trough periodic revivals, notably in the early Renaissance, and again in the 17th and 18th centuries.



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  • CAMEO GLASS

    is an ornament of layered glass, whereby usually the glass of one layer is covered by casing, with one or more layers of contrasting color(s).

    The outer layers are acid-etched, carved, cut, or engraved to produce a design that stands out from the background.


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  • CANE (GLASS)


    is a thin, monochrome glass rod, or a composite rod consisting of groups of glass rods of different colors., which are bundled together and fused to form a polychrome design that is visible when seen in cross section.
    See Bar, Millefiori, and Rod.

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  • CARAT


    abbreviated ct.
    is a standard measure of weight/mass used for gemstones.

    One carat weights 0.2 gram (1/5 of a gram or 0.0007 ounce).

    A hundredth of a carat is called a point.

    Carat (sometimes spelled Karat) is also is a unit of purity for gold.

    24 karat gold is pure gold.

    18 karat gold is 18/24 gold (about 75% gold - three quarters gold).

    14 karat gold is 14/24 gold (about 58% gold - a little over half gold).

    12 karat gold is exactly half gold.

    10 karat gold is 10/24 gold (only about 43.5% gold - less than half gold).


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  • CARBUNCLE


    is a deep-red cabochon garnet (cut without facets).

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  • CARNELIAN
    a.k.a. cornelian, carneole




    is a translucent reddish gemstone with a waxy luster, a form of chalcedony; in fact it can be said that carnelian is an variety of A-grade agate.
    The name carnelian is said to be derived from the Latin word carnis (meaning "flesh"), due to its color.
    According to some gemologists most of the fiery red/orange "true" carnelian is heat-treated in secret, well before it reaches the gemstone-cutting factory.

    When held against the light, the color-treated carnelian shows its color in stripes, while natural carnelian shows a cloudy distribution of color.

    Most commercial carnelian is really stained chalcedony.

    Carnelian has a hardness of 7 and a specific gravity of 2.61.

    The best quality carnelian comes from India. Other deposits of this gemstone are found in Brazil, Australia, Russia, Madagascar, South Africa, Uruguay and the USA.


    Alleged metaphysical properties

    Carnelian has been known among crystal healers as the "Friendly One."

    It is believed to help tissue regeneration and blood disorders, to energize and enhance the physical, emotional and mental self.

    For centuries it has been used to stop the flow of blood, and many believe the gemstone will stop nosebleeds.

    Because of its red color the gemstone is also thought to bring passion to the wearer. It is believed to help cure infertility or impotency.

    According to ancient Egyptian carnelian amulets could help ensure the Ka's (the soul's) passage into the next world.

    Ancient Greeks and Romans called carnelian the Sardius and used the gemstone for signet rings, cameos and intaglios.

    Some Muslims call it "the Mecca stone". Islamic doctrine holds that engraving the name of Allah on carnelian stones boosts courage; some even believed that Allah would grant all the desires of wearers of the stone.

    Tibetans created amulets of silver with generous applications of carnelian, and in India, Vedic astrology names carnelian as the secondary stone of Scorpios.



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  • CARVING GLASS


    is the process of careful removal of glass from the surface of an object by means of hand-held tools.


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  • CASTING


    is the complex process in which some substance (it can be glass, metal, plastic, or other) is shaped by melting it and pouring it into a mould.
    This process has been used for thousands of years.
    Moulds are made from many materials, including plaster compounds.

    Some different methods of casting include the lost wax process, centrifugal (or investment) casting, and sand casting.



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  • CATCH


    is any of several finding devices that size or engage, hold and arrest another part.



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  • CAT EYE


    is a term used for fiber optics and gemstone jewellery that have a changeable luster and a band that seems to move resembling a cat's eye.
    Fiber optic beads used in costume jewellery are often referred to as cat eyes.


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  • CELESTITE

    a.k.a. celestine




    is a transparent to translucent mineral consisting of natural strontium sulphate.
    It occurs crystallized, and also in compact massive and fibrous forms.
    It is usually blue, but occasionally it can also be found colorless, white, yellow, reddish , brown and green.

    Celestite sometimes develops entwined with other colorful minerals, making beautiful combinations.

    Blue Celestite with bright yellow sulphur is one of the most famous colorful combinations of minerals.

    Celestite is often found disseminated through limestone or sandstone, or lining cavities in such rocks.

    Celestite has a relative hardness of 3 - 4.

    Major sources include USA, Madagascar, Sicily and Germany.

    Celestite is an important source of strontium and is used to prepare nitrate of strontium for fireworks and tracer bullets, and in the refining of beet sugar.


    Alleged metaphysical properties

    Among crystal healers Celestite is known as the "Stone of Heaven" and "Angelic Love".

    It is said to bring inner peace, hope, and harmony by attuning the mind to higher frequencies and and in doing so - improving comprehension.

    On a physical level it is believed to help healing eyesight, hearing, and mental disorders. Balances yin and yang energies.



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  • CFW


    is an abbreviation for cultured freshwater pearls.


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  • CHAIN


    is a series of plain or ornamental metal links, made of wire connected with- or fitting trough each other;
    ordinarily used for the purpose of supporting something (such as a pendant) but also alone or in a bunch for purely decorative uses.


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  • CHAKRA


    is one of the seven basic energy nodes in the human body (according to Hinduism, buddhism and some related eastern cultures, as well as the new age movement).
    The seven main chakras are also known as primary chakras, and are described as being aligned in an ascending column from the base of the spine to the top of the head.
    It is generally believed among crystal healers that gems & crystals emit vibrations that affect the wearer's body.

    Certain crystal or gem varieties are believed to have positive effects when utilized on particular energy centres or chakras of the body, much like deep therapeutic massage and acupuncture.

    Each chakra is associated with a certain color, multiple specific functions, an aspect of consciousness, a classical element, and other distinguishing characteristics.

    The 7 basic chakra points of the human body their locations and their gem attributes are as follows:



    FIRST CHAKRA

    NAME: ROOT CHAKRA a.k.a. Muladhara, Mula Padma, Adhara, Brahma Padma, Bhumi Chakra

    LOCATION: the base of the spine

    ASSOCIATED COLOR: RED

    ASSOCIATED ELEMENT: EARTH

    GEMS AND CRYSTALS BENEFICIAL FOR THIS CHAKRA :

    Cornelian, Garnet, Ruby, Heliotrope, Cuprite, Black Tourmaline, Smoky Quartz, Onyx, Agate, Black Obsidian, Hematite, Fire Agate, Ametrine, Tiger eye, Blood Stone and Nephrite
     


    SECOND CHAKRA

    NAME: SACRAL CHAKRA/HARA a.k.a. Swadhishthana, Adhishthana, Bhima, Shatpatra, Skaddala Padma, Wari Chakra

    LOCATION: lower abdomen to navel

    ASSOCIATED COLOR: ORANGE

    ASSOCIATED ELEMENT: WATER

    GEMS AND CRYSTALS BENEFICIAL FOR THIS CHAKRA

    Amber, Moonstone, Cornelian, Citrine, Golden Topaz, Golden Beryl, Aragonite, Orange Calcite, Selenite, Zircon and Sunstone

     


    THIRD CHAKRA

    NAME: SOLAR PLEXUS CHAKRA a.k.a. Manipura, Dashadala Padma,  Manipura.k.a., Nabhipadma, Nabhi Chakra

    LOCATION: below the ribs to above the navel

    ASSOCIATED COLOR: GOLDEN YELLOW

    ASSOCIATED ELEMENT: FIRE

    GEMS AND CRYSTALS BENEFICIAL FOR THIS CHAKRA

    Aventurine, Yellow Citrine, Golden Topaz, Green-Yellow Tourmaline, Tigers Eye, Sunstone, Rutilated Quartz, Amber, Sunstone, Malachite, Peridot and Emerald
     


    FOURTH CHAKRA

    NAME: HEART CHAKRA a.k.a. Anahata, Dwadasha Chakra, Hridaya Kamala, Hrit Padma, Hritpankaja,  Padma-Sundara, Suryasangkhyadala

    LOCATION: centre of the chest

    ASSOCIATED COLOR: GREEN

    ASSOCIATED ELEMENT: AIR

    GEMS AND CRYSTALS BENEFICIAL FOR THIS CHAKRA

    Rose Quartz, Tourmaline, Rubellite, Rhodochrosite, Emerald, Malachite, Morganite, Kunzite, Green Aventurine, Ruby, Hiddenite, Garnet, Green Jade, Nephrite, Kunzite, Prehnite, Chrysoprase, Rhodonite, Moldavite

     


    FIFTH CHAKRA

    NAME: THROAT CHAKRA a.k.a. Vishuddha, Vishuddhi , a.k.a.sha,  Kantha, Nirmala-Padma, Shodashara

    LOCATION: throat area

    ASSOCIATED COLOR: SKY BLUE

    ASSOCIATED ELEMENT: ETHER

    GEMS AND CRYSTALS BENEFICIAL FOR THIS CHAKRA

    Apophyllite, Aquamarine, Blue Lace Agate, Blue Topaz, Blue Tourmaline, Celestite, Indicolite, Blue Turquoise, Chrysocolla, Amazonite, Lapis Lazuli, Larimar, Sodalite, Iolite, Kyanite and Zircon


     
    SIXTH CHAKRA

    NAME: THIRD EYE CHAKRA a.k.a. Ajna-Puri, Bhru Chakra, Jnana-Padma, Shiva-Padma, Baindawa-Sthana, Trirasna, Dwidala, Bhruyugamadhyabila

    LOCATION: centre of the forehead

    ASSOCIATED COLOR: INDIGO

    ASSOCIATED ELEMENT: TIME

    GEMS AND CRYSTALS BENEFICIAL FOR THIS CHAKRA

    Azurite, Sugilite, Amethyst, Celestite, Tanzanite, Blue Tourmaline, Sapphire, Lavender Quartz, Purple Fluorite, Charoite, Sodalite, and Iolite




    SEVENTH CHAKRA

    NAME: CROWN CHAKRA a.k.a Akasha Chakra, Sahasrara Kamala (Pankaja or Padma), Sahasradala, Parama, Kapalasamputa, Shantyatita, Wyoma 

    LOCATION: top of the head

    ASSOCIATED COLOR: VIOLET OR WHITE

    ASSOCIATED ELEMENT: SPACE

    GEMS AND CRYSTALS BENEFICIAL FOR THIS CHAKRA

    Sugilite, Ametrine, Clear Quartz Crystal, Amethyst, Howlite, Moonstone, Lavender Quartz, Rutilated Quartz, Diamond and White Topaz
     



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  • CHALCEDONY





    is a "catch all" term for a family of minerals that includes many well known varieties of cryptocrystalline quartz gemstones.
    It is a microcrystalline variety of silicon dioxide, that forms rounded crusts, rinds, or stalactites in volcanic and sedimentary rocks.

    Chalcedony is translucent stone with a waxy luster that occurs in many forms, colors, and shapes.

    It may be semitransparent and is usually whitish to gray, grayish-blue to blue, but it can be found colorless, yellow, green, brown, red, pink, purple, or black. Other shades have been given different names.

    Varieties of chalcedony include jasper, agate, moss agate, chrysoprase, bloodstone, sard, carnelian, seftonite, onyx and others.

    Natural chalcedony normally has no banding. It is porous stone and can therefore be dyed easily.

    Chalcedony is fairly hard, it has hardness of 7 on the Mohs' scale and is usually seen cut into cabochons, cameos, carvings, beads, and tablets.

    The refractive index is 1.54 and the specific gravity is 2.60.

    Chalcedony is one of the few minerals other than quartz that is found in geodes.

    It is found in many parts of the world, major sources are found in Brazil, India, Madagascar, Myanmar, Brazil, Mexico, Uruguay, Namibia, Zimbabwe, Sri Lanka, USA, Australia and southwestern Africa.

    In all ages chalcedony has been the stone most used by the gem engraver, and many colored varieties are still cut and polished as ornamental stones.

    Nowadays, unless it is intricately carved or featured, chalcedony is valued much less than it once was.

    Protect chalcedony from scratches, sharp blows, chemicals and extreme temperatures.



    Alleged metaphysical properties

    This beautiful stone represents benevolence and good will.

    Chalcedony is believed to enhance creativity, generosity, responsiveness and receptivity.

    Blue chalcedony, in particular, is reputed to boost vitality, stamina, endurance and emotional balance.

    Chalcedony promotes peace and calmness.

    It is believed to diminish fear, and help in treatment of mental illness, hysteria, psychosis and depression.

    Crystal healers sometimes use it to reduce fever.

    Native Americans used chalcedony as a sacred stone.



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  • CHALK GLASS


    is a colorless glass containing chalk; developed in Bohemia in the late 17th century.
    Vessels of thick chalk glass were often elaborately engraved.



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  • CHAMPLEVÉ


    (a.k.a. email champlevé, meaning sunken enamel)
    is a method of applying enamel to metal in which the design is first outlined on the metal surface by cutting lines into the surface.

    The engraved grooves are then filled with enamel, fired to a glassy sheen, and polished.

    Champlevé is similar to cloisonné, but not as delicate.



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  • CHANDELIER EARRINGS


    are dangling earrings characterized by numerous small pieces that can freely move, much like a chandelier.
    Recently this style is enjoying popularity in fashion jewellery.


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  • CHARLOTTE


    Is size 13 seed beads with a facet ground on one side, sometimes called a "true cut" or "one cut" and "the most brilliant of all seed beads" because they add sparkle to beadwork.

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  • CHARM


    is an object originally worn singly or in bunches because of its protective properties in averting illness or to secure good luck.
    Now often just an amusing or commemorative object.


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  • CHARM BOX


    is an ornamental box worn as a pendant on a chain or on a beaded necklace (Tibetan tradition)


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  • CHATON


    is a stone with a reflective metal foil backing


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  • CHATON SETTING


    a.k.a. coronet or arcade setting is one in which the stone is held in by many metal claws around a metal ring



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  • CHATOYANCY


    In gemology, chatoyancy indicates an lustrous, cat's eye optical effect seen in certain gemstones.
    Coined from the French, meaning "cat's eye," chatoyancy arises either from the fibrous structure of a material, as in tiger eye quartz, or from fibrous inclusions or cavities within the stone, as in cat's eye chrysoberyl.

    The effect can be likened to the sheen off a spool of silk; the mobile, wavering reflection always being perpendicular to the direction of the fibres.

    For a gemstone to show this effect it must be cut as cabochon, with the fibers or fibrous structures parallel to the base of the finished stone.

    Some gem species known for this phenomenon include quartz, chrysoberyl, beryl (especially var. aquamarine), tourmaline, apatite, and scapolite.



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  • CHOKER



    is a short, tight fitting necklace, worn high on the neck, close to a woman's throat.
    This type of jewellery can consist of one or more bands circumventing the neck, sometimes having an attached pendant.

    Chokers can be made of a variety of materials, including velvet, beads, metal and leather.

    They may or may not be adorned with sequins, studs and come in a variety of colors.

    Chokers usual length is anything between 35 cm( 14") to 40 cm (16" in).

    Examples in Sumerian jewellery consisted of adjacent triangles of gold and lapis lazuli alternately inverted.



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  • CHRYSOCOLLA





    is a hydrous copper silicate mineral/mineraloid sometimes used in jewellery.
    Chrysocolla is semi-transparent to translucent; color is a unique green-blue, but can vary widely from more blue to more green, often in the same specimen.

    Occasionally, Chrysocolla can have a turquoise color and be confused for the more precious stone.

    Pure Chrysocolla is soft and fragile and therefore not appropriate for use in jewellery.

    However, in nature Chrysocolla is often "agatized" in chalcedony quartz, and it is the quartz that provides the stone with its polish and durability.

    Druzy Chrysocolla is a natural rock composed of 'agatized' Chrysocolla with a crust of small sparkling quartz crystals in small cavities.

    A skilled craftsman, is able to polish such specimen so that the colored swirls of chrysocolla are accentuated between sparkles of the druzy quartz. Most often Chrysocolla is seen cut into
    cabochons, cameos and carvings.

    Although Chrysocolla has been used in ornaments since the time of the ancient Greeks, it was only described mineralogicaly in 1968. Its hardness varies from 2 to 4.

    Chrysocolla is found embedded in rock crystal in copper mines in the Chile, Peru, Mexico, Zaire, Congo, Russia, UK, USA and Israel.



    Alleged metaphysical properties

    Sometimes referred to as the "Women's Friend", chrysocolla is reputed to enhance the feminine energies, awaken compassion, inspire creativity, joy and serenity, promote harmony and attunement to the Earth.

    Gentle, soothing and friendly, this gem is said to attracts prosperity and good luck.

    Chrysocolla is thought excellent help for restoring strength and balance, especially emotional balance. It promotes inner strength helping one to stay cool in the time of turmoil.

    It is also believed to help one to release stress culminating from negative emotions, and in doing so to increase ones capacity to love.

    Chrysocolla is believed to clear the throat chakra and assist one in speaking one's highest truth.

    Historically, it was much used by musicians, perhaps because of its reputation for having healing properties for throat and lungs.

    Chrysocolla is thought to be of great therapeutic assistance in healing traumas.

    Chrysocolla is considered excellent relief for PMS and menopause related discomfort, and other related problems.

    Some crystal healers use it to draw out pain and excessive heat, and for purifying body as well as the surrounding environment.



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  • CHRYSOPRASE

    a.k.a. Australian Jade




    is the most valued variety of the mineral chalcedony (microcrystalline quartz).
    Porous and translucent this gem looks best when cut as cabochon.

    Chrysoprase is specially prized for its rarity and opalescent apple-green color derived from staining by nickel oxide.

    The color can fade in sunlight and when heated. Fading occurs when dehydration robs stones of their coloring agent, and as stones dry out, they lose translucency and luster.

    To restore these attributes, leave stones in wet cotton.

    Chrysoprase has a hardness of 7 and a specific gravity of 2,6.

    Major sources include Australia, Brazil, Russia and USA.

    Chrysoprase was used by the Greeks, Romans and Egyptians in jewellery and other ornamental objects.



    Alleged metaphysical properties

    Sometimes referred to as the "Joy Stone", chrysoprase is reputed to facilitate harmony, balance, joy and last but not the least - a sense of grace .

    An inward looking stone - it is believed to encourage hope, and bring out clarity & hidden talents.

    Some like to use this stone to enhance one's sense of courage.

    On a physical level chrysoprase is used in curing depression and restlessness, and for improving the eyesight.

    Chrysoprase has always been renowned as having unusual powers.

    In the Middle Ages, it was believed that if you put a piece of chrysoprase in your mouth, you would become invisible, and Romanian folklore claims chrysoprase enabled its owner to understand the language of lizards.




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  • CINNABAR





    is the mineral Mercury Sulphide.

    It is often carved and used in jewellery and various other ornaments.

    Its color ranges from cinnamon to scarlet to brick red, and it can be translucent to transparent.

    Cinnabar has a hardness of 2 - 2.5 (very soft) and a specific gravity of 8.1 (quite heavy).

    It is mined in Spain, Italy, and in the USA.

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  • CITRINE






    is a rare, macrocrystalline variety of the mineral Quartz.
    This transparent gemstone can range in color from pale yellow to bright yellow, to reddish-orange, to golden brown.
    The color of citrine is due to small amounts of iron impurities in the crystal structure of quartz.

    The difference between citrine and amethyst is only the oxidation state of the iron impurities present in the quartz.

    Many of the stones sold as citrine are actually heat-treated amethysts.

    At the present, it is not possible to determine with certainty whether or not an amethyst or citrine was synthetically irradiated or heated.

    Sometimes heat-treated forms can be distinguished from natural citrine by their red tint (a quality of all heat-treated gemstones).

    Citrine changes color permanently if left in the sunlight for several hours, hence citrine beads should be kept away from prolonged exposure to strong light or heat.

    Citrine has been used as gemstones and other ornamental objects for thousands of years. In most early references it was often confused with topaz.

    Citrine does closely resemble topaz, but is slightly softer and has less brilliance.

    There has been much confusion between citrine and topaz, and citrine has previously been known as citrine topaz, golden topaz, topaz-quartz, madeira topaz, spanish topaz and saxon topaz, as well as by other names.

    It should be known that most "topaz" labeled with a prefix name (such as those listed) is actually the heat-treated form of citrine.

    The only known exceptions (thus, those that are truly topaz) are imperial topaz, oriental topaz and precious topaz.

    Natural citrine is not common and occurs in lighter hues than the heat-treated material. .

    Citrine has a hardness of 7, a specific gravity of 2.65, and index of refraction is 1.54-1.55.

    The best quality citrine is found in Brazil, but India is also a major source of citrine.

    The name citrine comes from the old French word 'citrin' meaning yellow.



    Alleged metaphysical properties

    Sometimes referred to as the "Abundance Stone" citrine is reputed to promote happiness, prosperity, success and good fortune.

    Citrine is said to be especially useful in stimulating one's mental capacities, enhancing creativity & intuition and bolstering one's self-confidence.

    Among crystal healers it is thought to help generate stability in all areas, to promote generosity and honesty, to attract abundance and help it manifest in many ways.

    It is reported to have a positive influence on relationships, helping perceive obstacles and their solution in an intelligent and optimistic manner.

    Citrine is believed to bring happiness and cheer to one who carries it or wears it.

    Citrine is believed to dissipate negative energy and complement body's natural healing energies.

    It does not absorb any negative energies from its surroundings, and thus never needs energetic clearing.

    On a physical level citrine is said to be useful in helping to remove toxins from the body and for overcoming addictions.

    Citrine is also said to help provide relief from the effects of radiation, and to facilitate absorption of antioxidants.

    Citrine is considered beneficial for the immune system, muscular disorders, endocrine system, circulatory system, tissue regeneration and sleep disturbances.

    It also is said to have been used extensively in treating a number of other disorders including those of the heart, liver, kidneys and digestive system.

    In ancient times, citrine was carried as a protection against snake venom and evil thoughts.



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  • CLARITY


    is the clearness of a gemstone, or the lack of internal flaws.
    The clarity scale for diamonds runs from FL (flawless, with neither internal nor external flaws), to I3 (having many clearly visible imperfections using only the naked eye).

    A ten-power loupe is used to examine a diamond for clarity.



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  • CLASP


    is a releasable catch device, a fastener made of two parts that can open and close; meant to joint and hold together the ends of a necklace, bracelets or the like.
    They come in many styles and metals and can be very simple or highly decorative.

    Some of the most popular ones include lobster claw clasps, the spring ring clasp, the hook-and-eye clasps, the fold-over clasp, the magnetic clasp, the box clasp, the barrel (or torpedo) clasps, the bar and ring toggle clasp, and multi-strand locking clasps.



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  • CLIP


    is an ornamental device used to firmly grip and tightly hold brooches, earrings and hair ornaments to the body or clothing by means of spring pressure clip.



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  • CLOISONNÉ


    is a decorative technique of applying enamel to metal.
    First a design is bent in metal wire and soldered on the metal surface to create a network of cells or cloisons.

    Those cells are then filled with powdered enamel.

    The whole piece is then heated in a kiln or oven. Heating causes the enamels to melt into the cells. The finished piece has a glassy sheen.



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  • CLOSED SETTING


    is such setting in which the back of the stone is not exposed (the metal is not cut away behind the stone).




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  • CLUSTER SETTING


    is such setting in which gemstones are set in groups, either around a central stone or in a random order.



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  • CLUTCH


    is the finding used to fasten post earrings.



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  • COCO BEADS


    are beads made out of coconut shells.


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  • COLOR-LINED beads


    are seed beads that have a separate, opaque color inside the hole of a transparent bead.
    Because the color is within the hole, these beads are more durable than surface painted beads.


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  • COMANCHE STITCH


    is another name for the Brick stitch


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  • COMPOSITE SUITE


    is a piece of jewellery that can be taken apart into two or more pieces which can be worn apart. For example, a necklace may be disassembled into two bracelets.


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  • CONCH (SHELL)


    is a marine animal (a mollusk) with a large, beautiful pearly shell that varies in color from white to pink (pink is the most valued color).
    It is often used to make jewellery. Conch is made into beads , chips and cameos.

    Conch has a hardness of 2.85 (it is relatively soft).


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  • CONCHA


    a.k.a. Concho
    is a hammered silver/metal disk or oval that often resembles a shell, flower, or sunburst.
    Conchas often have raised designs (repoussage).

    Conchas are traditionally used to decorate belts (a series of conchas are attached to a leather belt), bridles, hats and other items.

    Concha is the Spanish word for conch shell.


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  • CONCH PEARL


    is a non-nacreous salt-water pearl of the conch shell, usually pink or white in body color.



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  • CORAL





    is an animal that grows in colonies in the ocean.
    Coral grows extremely slowly, many at a rate of about 3 centimeters every 20 years!

    Many people think coral, like ivory, is an endangered species, and should be protected by law from any form of commercial exploitation.

    Coral is among the most ancient of gem materials, used for adornment since prehistoric times.

    Coral polyps secrete a strong calcium structure that is used in jewellery making whereby it is either carved into beads, cameos, or other forms, or is left in its natural branch-like form and just polished.

    Coral comes in a wide range of colors, with black, red, pink and pale pink (called angelskin coral) considered the most valuable.

    It appears dull and matte when unfinished, but gains a beautiful gloss after polishing.

    With hardness of about 3.5, coral is much softer than other gem materials. Fragile and porous, it should be carefully protected to avoid scratches, and kept away from chemicals.

    Cosmetics, hot water and bright daylight are damaging to it.

    To clean, wipe it gently with a moist soft cloth.

    Coral is often imitated by plastic, glass, porcelain and stained bone, but natural coral has a distinctive wood-grain texture that can help identify it as the real thing.



    Alleged metaphysical properties

    Red coral is believed to attract love, prosperity and optimism.

    Coral is said to assists in developing the skills of intuition, imagination, creativity and understanding of purpose.

    Coral is reputed to be a great emotional balancer, one that helps improve life by bringing inner peace.

    On a physical level, coral is believed to strengthen the blood and circulatory systems, and stimulate tissue regeneration,.

    Some crystal healers use coral when treating nutritional deficiencies and depression.

    Coral is one of the seven treasures in Buddhist scriptures, and Tibetan lamas use coral rosaries. To Buddhists, coral is a treasure that can protect you from devil spirits.



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  • CORUNDUM


    is a very hard and highly valued mineral used as a gemstone.
    Pure corundum is rare in nature and is perfectly colorless

    Small amounts of metallic elements can substitute for aluminium in the corundum crystal structure, giving rise to many color variations.

    Blue corundum contains titanium and is called sapphire, the pinkish-red to red corundum contains chromic oxide and is called ruby, and the orangish-pink is especially valued and is known as padparadscha.

    Corundum of any color is referred to as sapphire with a preceding color designation if the color is any other than blue.

    Corundum stones can produce beautiful asterisms.

    Natural star corundum characteristically has some imperfections, although occasionally a natural star corundum does occur with an exceptionally fine quality near-perfect star.
    Most synthetically produced star corundum has very perfect stars with fine straight rays.

    The color and in some cases the clarity in gem corundum can be modified and improved by a number of processes that are in common use today.

    Gem corundum that exhibits natural color and clarity is significantly more valuable then artificially enhanced corundum of natural origin.

    Special techniques and equipment are necessary when determining whether a natural gem corundum has been artificially enhanced and even then some doubts can remain.

    For decades, the synthetically produced gem corundum has been used as an inexpensive substitute for the genuine article.



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  • COSTUME JEWELLERY


    a.k.a. fashion jewellery

    is trendy, fashionable jewellery, usually bolder in shapes, materials, and size than precious jewellery , because of the lower material costs.
    Originally it meant any jewellery made from materials other than the noble metals (gold, silver & platinum) and precious stones.

    However, in our view, such division is somewhat outdated nowadays.

    So called ' precious jewellery' is not as conservative as it once was.

    We see gold combined with colorful resins; precious stones set in pressed sardine tin; orange lentils set in sterling silver; diamonds set in laminated photograph; broken glass set in gold etc.

    More often one can also see fashion jewellery collections handcrafted by artist, incorporating unique mix of materials, from paper, textile, various resins and glass to superior quality gemstones, noble metal beads and findings.

    Costume jewellery can range in price from very cheap, mass produced, machine pieces to very expensive, one-of-a-kind designer pieces.

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  • CRACKED BEADS


    are glass beads that have been cooled suddenly when the glass was still hot, which makes it crack.

    In that stage of the process (when just cracked) the glass is too fragile, so it must be carefully reheated until the outer surface melts and creates a strong outer coating that will hold the bead together.

    Great skill and experience is required to get it to crack just enough, but not fall apart, and then to melt just enough but not melt the bead.

    Most glass techniques are like this, even the machine made glass requires years of experience as each cane will react differently depending on the color, the size, the heat, etc.



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  • CRIMP BEAD



    are a very small pieces metal beads or tubes used to finish off a strand of beads.
    A jewellery wire goes through the crimp, through the clasp, and back through the crimp.

    The crimp bead is then squeezed shut with a crimping pliers to hold tightly and secure the end loops of the threading material onto the clasp.


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  • CROWN GLASS


    is glass that contains no lead oxide. Some rhinestones are made from crown glass.



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  • CRYSTAL (GLASS)


    is high-grade, faceted, leaded glass containing at least 10% lead oxide. Lead added to the melt allows for brighter colors, and produces very clear glass resembling rock crystal.
    The variations are the cuts, the lead content, and the polishing method. Hand faceted, machine faceted, hand polished, or fire polished. Crystal is colored by adding various metallic oxides to the melt

    The process of making lead crystal was discovered by the English glass maker George Ravenscroft in 1676.

    Austrian crystal and some Czech is machine cut. Czech fire polish crystal is molded in a crystal shape.

    Crystal is now being produced in the orient on a large scale, and every year, they get better at it.



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  • CRYSTAL (NATURAL)





    is a solid transparent mineral whose atoms form a very regular structure (crystalline structure) and is often characterized by external planar faces.
    Some crystals include quartz, diamond, and emerald.

    Crystals were formed in nature eons ago in a slow geological process, and are the only known non-organic substances which can grow.

    Generally, quartz crystals grow in a hexagonal (six sided) structure, with additional faces sloping towards a point at one end.

    A crystal with these characteristics is itself also called a POINT. Points may be totally clear and transparent, or they may contain streaks, lines, rainbows, water bubbles or other inclusions.

    They may also appear cloudy if they have grown in a place where it freezes in the winter.

    Optical clarity usually has little to do with a crystal's quality and its ability to amplify the subtle energies.

    The word 'crystal' is derived from the Greek word krystallos which means ice.

    Crystals have been revered, collected and worn since the earliest times.

    For alleged metaphysical properties of rock crystal see: Quartz



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  • CRYSTAL HABIT


    is the crystal form that is associated with a particular crystal.
    The most common crystal habits are:

    • Prismatic - elongated with parallel sides, like emerald, tourmaline

    • Tabular - short and flat (table-like), like morganite

    • Ocatahedral - eight faces, like diamond

    • Dodecahedral - 12 faces, like garnet

    • Acicular - needle-shaped, like rutilated quartz

    • Platy - occurring in very thin plates, like hematite



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  • CRYSTALINE STATE


    describes and implies the strict arrangement of atoms and molecules within the uniform structure of the crystal, which repeats itself identically in all dimensions at the rate of 100 million times per centimeter.



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  • CUBIC ZIRCONIUM





    a.k.a. cubic zirconia; is zirconium oxide, a mineral that is extremely rare in nature but is widely synthesized for use as a diamond simulant.
    It should not be confused with zircon, which is a zirconium silicate.

    The synthesized material is hard, at about 8.5 on the Mohs scale ( nowhere near diamond, but still much harder than most natural gems), optically flawless and usually colorless (although it may be made in a variety of different colors).

    Cubic zirconia was developed in 1977.



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  • CUFF BRACELET


    is a type of a rigid cylindrical bangle bracelet, without a clasp, so that the tapered ends are do not meet.
    It is put on from the side of the wrist instead of being slipped over the hand. Some styles of cuff bracelets can be worn above the elbow.



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  • CULTURED PEARLS


    are genuine pearls formed within oysters.
    They are called cultured because a tiny bead known as a 'nucleus' have been surgically inserted into a mollusk to start the process that creates a pearl; in nature a grain of sand or some other irritant that enters a mollusk starts the process that results in a natural pearl.

    Cultured pearls are cultivated on farms in fresh water or saltwater.

    Layers of "nacre" are secreted by the mollusk as a natural reaction to a foreign body and are built up layer after layer.

    The length of time a pearl is allowed to grow and/or the size of the nucleus will determine the size of the pearl that will be harvested.

    Usually after 5-7 years, the oysters are retrieved and the pearls are harvested.

    This method of "manufacturing" pearls was invented in 1893 by Kokichi Mikimoto.

    See: Pearl




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  • CUT BEADS


    are glass beads that have been faceted.
    This process makes the bead reflect and refract more light.



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  • CUT STONES


    are precious and semiprecious stones that have been faceted.
    Common cuts include the brilliant cut, old European cut, emerald cut, radiant cut, rose cut, step cut, pendelique cut, to name just a few.

    Mixed cuts are cuts in which the style of the facets above and below the girdle are different. Other, more unusual cuts, are know as fantasy cuts (like the heart cut).



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  • CZ


    is a short term for cubic zirconia.


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