are ornaments usually worn on the earlobe, and held to it by various devices such as studs, clips, loops, chains, sometimes with attachments to the hair, to relieve the weight; with or without a pendant.
    Two basic types are those held by the insertion of a wire through the pierced lobe, and those held by a pressure device such as a screw or a clip.

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    a.k.a. ear wires

    is a general term for different types of devices used for holding an earring to the ear. These can be divided into several basic types:

    - a pierced ear wire (there exist several types: a straight pointed post, a butterfly clip, kidney wires , hoops. french ear wire , and delicate fishhook wires);

    - a screw ( a threaded post is screwed closed to hold the earring tightly on the ear); and

    - a spring clip.

    Ear wires are available in different compositions and finishes, like sterling silver, gold, gold filled, vermeil, silver plated, gold plated, surgical steel, brass, or steel.

    Ear wires made out of precious metal tend to cause less allergic reactions. Few people are allergic to gold and silver too, but many more have allergic reaction to zinc, nickel and other base metals.

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    is a hard, dark, dense wood sometimes used in jewellery.

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    - also called Galvano-technique after its inventor, Luigi Galvani -
    is a process in which one metal is coated with another metal using electricity.

    In jewellery, inexpensive metals are frequently electroplated with more expensive metals, like gold (gold plating), copper (electro-coppering), rhodium (rhodanizing), chromium (chromium plating), or silver (silver plating).

    The thickness of the metal coat varies.

    Electrogilded coating is the thinnest (less than 0.000007 inches thick); gold-cased metals have a coating thicker that 0.000007 inches.

    Eventually, the plating wears away, but it depends on how often the item is worn and how thick the plating is.

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    is a deep green, translucent to opaque gemstone; the variety of beryl.
    Unlike other beryls, almost all unenhanced emeralds contain inclusions and other flaws. These flaws are not considered negative aspects, as they would be for other gemstones, but are instead considered part of the character of the stone.

    Emerald's precious green color is caused by small amounts of chromium or vanadium or both together.

    Possible presence of iron gives the emerald a bluish tone.

    The most desired color is an intense grass green which is considered very valuable, even when visible inclusions are present in the faceted gem.

    Synthetic emeralds (developed in the 1930's) have fewer imperfections and are very hard to distinguish from natural emeralds.

    Well over 90% of the natural emeralds, produced in the last couple of decades, have been treated in various ways (like "oiling", resin coating, irradiation, dyeing etc. ) to improve their look, to minimize the appearance of the inclusions, and to hide other flaws and cloudiness (called jardin).

    These treatments dramatically improve the appearance of the gems, but necessitate special care in cleaning and setting.

    Clean your emeralds only with a soft, dry cloth.

    Do not clean emerald in hot soapy water or in sonic cleaner.

    Steam cleaners, solvents and ultrasonic cleaners can remove the oil, making inclusions, which had barely been visible before cleaning, stand out in sharp relief. It is possible to have emeralds re-oiled.

    Try prevent long exposure to heat, since emeralds lose their color when strongly heated.

    Emeralds have a hardness of 7-8 and a specific gravity of 2.6 - 2.8. Index of refraction is 1.566 - 1.602.

    Colombia and Brazil are the two major producers of emerald. At present, there are emerald mines in Zambia, Zimbabwe, Madagascar and Nigeria.

    Each of these location typically produces a certain color, size and clarity.

    Japan and USA together purchase more than 75% of the world's cut emeralds.

    Alleged metaphysical properties

    Sometimes referred to as the "Immortality Stone" emerald has been attributed many virtues, healing properties and occult powers.

    In general it can be said that emerald is believed to protect against illnesses, physical danger and evil spirits.

    Emerald is said to facilitate confidence, peace and harmony, to inspire deeper spiritual insight, and to enhance one's creativity and mental capacities.

    On a physical level emerald is considered excellent general healer, especially reputed for its beneficial effect on the eyes and eyesight.

    Ancient blood detoxifier, emerald is said to help strengthen the heart and kidneys, and to help eliminate free radicals from the body.

    Legend says emeralds protects from snakebites, prevents epilepsy and assist in predicting the future.

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    are stones with rectangular girdle that has truncated corners. Emerald cuts are frequently used on emeralds and diamonds.

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    Is a vitreous, usually opaque, protective or decorative glaze-like substance made of finely powdered glass colored with metallic oxide and bonded on metal.
    This glass composition adheres to the metal through fusion under very high temperatures. Enamel can also be applied on to a glass, or ceramic surface.

    The color of the enamel and its degree of transparency depend on the metal oxides that exist in the glass and the temperature at which the glass melts and coheres to the surface:

    'Harder' means fused at higher temperatures, more durable, more translucent. 'Softer means fused at lower temperatures, more fragile, more opaque.

    The enamel may be applied in cloisonné, champlevé, guilloche, and plique à jour technique.

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    is a finding used to hide the end of a cord or a knot that ties multiple strands in a necklace.
    End caps often have a jump ring attached to it, needed for fastening a clasp or connecting with other components.

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    is the process of cutting into the surface of an annealed glass object either by holding it against a rotating copper wheel fed with an abrasive or by scratching it, usually with a diamond. See also carving glass.

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    are stones that have been treated to improve their color, clarity, finish, strength, or other characteristics.
    Some common enhancements are heat-treatment, irradiation, coating the surface, filling cracks, oiling, surface diffusion (coating the surface then applying heat), bleaching, dyeing, etc.

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    is a pearlized coating on- or inside the glass bead, to simulate a genuine pearl.
    The coating is made of pounded fish scale.

    Originally hollow glass beads were coated on the inside and filled with wax so as to seem heavier.

    A lot of pearls that were made 50 years ago are still around but the wax has dissolved away and the coating is flaky and gray.

    Modern faux pearls are coated on the outside either on glass or more recently on mother of pearl which more accurately simulates the heft of a real pearl.

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    a.k.a. -the old European cut

    is an old, round diamond cut that is similar to but less bright than the newer brilliant cut.

    The European cut has a very small table and heavy crown.

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