is a name for one of the small, flat surfaces polished on a cut gemstone to increase it's brilliancy and beauty. 
    The widest part of a faceted stone is known as the girdle;
    Of the many hundreds of facet arrangements that have been used, the most famous is probably the round brilliant cut, used for diamond.

    This arrangement of 57 facets was calculated by Marcel Tolkowsky in 1919.

    Slight improvements have been made since then, including the addition of a 58th facet (a culet) on the bottom of the stone.

    Since this is calculated to show maximum brilliance, diamonds are rarely cut in any other arrangement, although recently the Princess cut is becoming popular.

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    is the process of cutting and polishing of the surface of a stone.

    Faceting or facetted cut is applied to produce an article that sparkles with internally reflected light, and that shows off the "fire" of the stone.
    Therefore, usually only transparent or translucent stones are faceted.

    The angles between each facet are precisely calculated.

    As the aim is to maximize the effect of the internal reflections, these angles depend on the refractive index of the material.

    For example, although cubic zirconia and rock crystal may look similar to diamond, and all can be cut in a round brilliant cut, the angles must be different to produce the same optical effects.

    Additionally, as diamond has a refractive index significantly higher than the other transparent stones, it can have a much greater sparkle than other materials.

    Specialized machines are used for cutting arbitrary facets. These consist of two main features:
    - a flat abrasive, usually diamond dust of precise size bonded onto cloth, and - a system for holding a stone onto the pad that measure the position of the stone.
    This usually requires the stone to be attached to a holder, which is then placed in an indexed vice.
    Modern machines tend to have indexed gears for moving the stone, so that rotating the stone to cut the next facet can be more precisely controlled.

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    (French for "style of Venice")
    is a term for glass made in imitation of Venetian products, at centres other than Venice itself.

    Façon de Venise glass was popular in many parts of Europe in the 16th and 17th centuries.

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    is another name for costume jewellery.

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  • FAUX

    means false. A faux gem is an imitation.

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    is any of an abundant group of rock-forming minerals which constitute 60% of the earth's crust.
    Chemically the feldspars are silicates of aluminium, containing sodium, potassium, iron, calcium, or barium or combinations of these elements occurring principally in igneous, plutonic, and some metamorphic rocks.
    Pure feldspar is colorless and transparent but the mineral is commonly opaque and found in a variety of colors.
    The majority of the common feldspars fall into two groups, the alkali feldspars, and the plagioclase feldspars.
    Albite is an end member in each of these groups.
    Amazonite is the rare green variety of microcline, which is the low temperature pure potassium end member of the alkali feldspar group.
    Labradorite is is another valuable form of feldspar used for decorative purposes, it is a member of the plagioclase feldspar group

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    Is is a decorative jewellery technique, an ornamental work of fine gold or silver wire, often wrought into an openwork design and joined with matching solder and borax under the flame of the blowpipe.
    Filigree is still employed today in Mediterranean areas, as well as in Mexico, India, and Scandinavian countries.

    Nowadays, a delicate lace-like castings with numerous fine openings are often referred to as filigree.

    Antique examples are to be seen in the Vatican, the Louvre, the British Museum, and the Metropolitan Museum.

    The Greeks practiced the art from the 6th to the 3d century BC, and the Etruscans were noted for fine granular work.

    Filigree was often made in ancient Egypt, China, and India.

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    are glass beads made by any of three processes that results in a changing luster and the chatoyancy effect similar to that of a natural cat's eye stone (like tiger eye).
    Fiber optics have been used extensively in costume jewellery in recent years.

    Fiber optics is the science or technology of light pulses transmission through very fine,hair-thin, flexible glass or plastic fibers.

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    is a generic term for the variety of small metal parts and components that have functional uses in the construction of and wearing of jewellery.
    There are literally thousands of different types of jewellery findings available.

    Among findings a distinction exists between those whose functional concepts involve

    - closing (clasps, catches, removable pins, hinges),

    - fastening (ear and hair clips, scarf clips, cufflinks, ear wires), and

    - joining ( wire, chain, split rings, jump rings, head pins, bails, screws, bolts and nuts, rivets, stone settings, bezels).

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    s the term often used to describe "high-grade" artworks such as poetry, music, painting, engraving, sculpture, architecture and any sort of artwork that is produced more for beauty or spiritual significance than for physical utility or any practical purpose.
    However, In present days as well as in the past times, often, a fine artistic work is applied to a useful item.

    In some cases, a finely decorated useful item may be put on display for its aesthetic value rather than used.

    In a few cases, classes of items that were formerly useful, are now regarded as belonging to the fine arts; for example, tapestries, which used to be used as insulation, are now used purely for decoration in many cultures.

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    is the proportion of silver or gold in a metal alloy.
    Fineness is usually expressed in parts per thousand. For example, the fineness of sterling silver is 925.

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    are beads that have been heated in a kiln at an extremely high temperature to obtain very clean, glossy surfaces and to smooth sharp facet edges.
    Fire polished beads are a great alternative to crystal at a lower cost; they come in a number of sizes, shapes and colors.

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    is a technique of forming objects from rods and tubes of glass that, when heated in a flame, become soft and can be manipulated into the desired shape.

    In the past, the source of the flame was an oil or paraffin lamp used in conjunction with foot-powered bellows; that explains the origin of the name.

    Today, gas-fueled torches are used.

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    is a small decorative flower.

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    is a mineral's property to glow in the presence of ultraviolet light. to emit light.
    Many stones (including some diamonds) will glow with characteristic colors. when exposed to ultraviolet light.

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    is a translucent to transparent, relatively common mineral that occurs in a great variety of colors. including blue, violet, purple, red, pink, white, colorless, yellow, green, brown, black, and multicolored bands.
    An interesting aspect of the gemstone is its fluorescence in ultraviolet light (various varieties fluoresce red, blue, green or yellow light). In fact, the word "fluorescent" is derived from fluorite.

    Fluorite's color, has been known to fade with prolonged exposure to sunlight.

    Fluorite is relatively soft stone, (hardness 4) easily scratched by a knife and even by quartz. For this reason, fluorite is not commonly fashioned into gems, since it is not durable enough to maintain an unblemished polish with normal jewellery use. It has a specific gravity of 3.0 - 3.3. Index of refraction is 1.433-1.435.

    It is found all around the world. Major sources of fluorite include England, Switzerland and USA.

    Never steam or ultrasonically clean fluorite; best way to clean it is to wash it in warm soapy water.

    Alleged metaphysical properties
    Sometimes referred to as the "Gatherer", fluorite is said to have a stabilizing influence on all levels.

    This mineral's energy is purported to help the evolution of harmonious spiritual growth.

    Fluorite is also said to promote healing, to facilitate healing work, and to give protection against many types of diseases.

    It is believed to help eliminate the discord that causes infection and disease.

    Crystal healers use it for strengthening the bones, teeth and cell structure.
    It is thought beneficial for blood vessels and spleen.

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    are transparent or translucent beads in which silver or gold foil has been trapped within the body or on the surface of the bead.

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    a.k.a. scented beads

    are beads made of some natural aromatics substance shaped into bead.
    Sandalwood and myrrh beads are a good example.

    In the past fragrant beads were sometimes shaped out of the grounded aromatic paste mixed with water and pressed into varied shapes. These beads were strung among pearls and precious stones to allow the fragrance to escape.

    The best known form of scented bead is the rose bead.

    These dark, wrinkled, and sweet smelling beads were made in a cast iron skillet where rose petals were cooked with water for a week. During all that time the water was never allowed to boil.

    The resulting mash was then cooled, mixed with a binder, shaped into beads, pierced and allowed to dry.

    These beads tend to shrink as much as 75 percent.

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    is a classic ear wire with a coil, a metal ball, and a loop that can be opened to attach to an earring.

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    are cultured pearls harvested from a freshwater mussel.
    While saltwater pearl-bearing oysters are nucleated in a small organ known as the gonad, freshwater mussels are nucleated in the actual mantle tissue.

    Each side of this bi-valve can handle up to 25 nucleations at one time. A single mussel can produce up to 50 pearls.

    The best pearls have thick overlapping layers of nacre.

    Generally, freshwater pearls assume the color of the shell in which they form. They come in shades of white, silvery-white, yellow, pink, peach, tangerine, copper, brown, plum, purple, lavender, green, blue and black. The most desirable colors are the pastel pinks, roses, lavenders, and purples.

    The first cultured freshwater pearls originated in Japan.

    In the 1930's, Japanese farmers by Lake Biwa achieved natural colors. unseen in saltwater pearls. However, well informed sources claim that water pollution today has virtually destroyed pearl production there.

    However, nowadays China has the resources that Japan lacks: many large lakes, rivers, and a low-cost work force.

    The first Chinese cultured pearls were quite basic, and there was not much progress until the 1990's when the Chinese have succeeded to take the art of culturing freshwater pearls to new levels.

    Shapes, luster, and colors of the new Chinese pearls now surpass Biwa.

    Since natural freshwater pearls are usually odd shapes, the Chinese reshape rejected pearls into spheres, and then nucleate mussels with them to achieve more roundness.

    In the last decade the quality of pearls produced have become so high that many pearls in the top percentage of a harvest are nearly indistinguishable of their saltwater relatives.

    This has created a renewed interest in freshwater pearls as an affordable alternative to the higher priced saltwater.

    Freshwater pearls are produced by Japan, China, and the USA.

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    is a term describing a long (often hanging) strand of beads along the edge of a project.

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    is the finest man-made crystal. Its high lead oxide content serves to enhance its natural color spectrum.
    The production of full lead crystal begins by combining proportionate amounts of quartz sand, soda, potash and lead oxide, which are then subjected to extremely high heat until molten.

    Crystal is not considered full lead until the lead oxide content goes above 30%. Swarovski full lead crystal has a lead content of 30% plus.

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    is a term indicating an enclosed structure for the production and application of heat.
    In glass making, furnaces are used for melting the batch, maintaining pots of glass in a molted state, and reheating partly formed objects at the glory hole.

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    are made by shaping hot glass by hand(tools).
    Long tubes of glass are drawn from molten glass.Then beads are cut from the tube (and later tumbled and reheated to smooth the edges of the beads).
    Furnace glass beads are made in a wide variety of colors., shapes, and designs. Layered colored glass gives them their unique appearance.

    Often a recycled glass is used to wind a bead inside the furnace.

    Usually If the glass is not of good quality there are bubbles and pronounced winding striations and general appearance of the finished bead is much more primitive.

    The glass tends to be milkier and the core is often black.

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