is the generic name for a group of transparent to opaque mineral species, all having essentially the same isometric crystal structure but varying in chemical composition and in many of their physical properties.
    Garnets are allochromatic, meaning that most of the color variations in different garnets are due to their highly variable trace element impurities rather than to their bulk composition elements.
    The red colored garnet receives the most recognition, but the mineral actually occurs in all colors. except blue.

    When significant amounts of vanadium and chromium impurities occur in malaia garnets, a distinct color change is visible when viewed under fluorescent light versus incandescent light.

    Garnets exhibiting this rare color behaviour are known as color change garnets.

    Grossular garnets of yellow-orange to orange-red to brown colors are known as hessonite garnets.

    Some of the less common garnet varieties are of unusual colors such as the green vanadium grossular garnet, variety tsavorite; and the green chromium andradite garnet, variety demantoid.

    This gleaming gemstone owes its brilliance to a high refraction of light, one of garnet's most appealing characteristics.

    Garnet has a hardness of 6.5 - 7.5 and a specific gravity of 3.5 - 4.3.

    Index of refraction is 1.72-1.94.

    Major sources of garnet are to be found in Kenya, Myanmar, Thailand,Madagascar, India, Brazil, USA, Canada, the Czech Republic and Spain.

    Garnets have been used as gemstones for thousands of years.

    Alleged metaphysical properties
    Sometimes referred to as the "Compassion Stone", garnet symbolizes grace, trust, love, courage and tolerance.

    Garnets are said to enhance one's creativity and understanding, to help strengthen willpower and increase self-esteem.

    This mineral is thought to preserve health by purifying and regenerating the body.

    Garnets are said to be specially effective in the treatment of infectious diseases, blood poisoning, and heart & lung diseases.

    Historically, garnets were believed to stop bleeding and give protection from wounds and poison.

    In Vedic astrology the brownish-orange/red hessonite garnet has long been a preferred talisman for warding off the evil influences of the celestial body named Rahu.

    Garnet was considered a sacred stone by many native indian tribes of North, South and Central America.

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    The word gauge is used in jewellery in two ways.

    The thickness of a piece of sheet metal is referred to as its gauge. Gauge is also the name for a metal tool to determine the thickness of wire. The gauge of wire is the measure of its diameter.

    The higher the number the thinner the wire. An exception Music Wire is numbered in increasing order.

    There are a variety of rating systems depending on the industry standards of specific country and on the type of measured wire (ferrous, non-ferrous)...

    American Wire Gauge (A.W.G.) also known as Brown & Sharpe(B.S.). is used for copper, aluminium,gold, silver, etc.

    British or Imperial Standard Wire Gauge (S.W.G.) is used in Great Britain and Canada

    US Steel Wire also known as Washburn & Moen (W & M) and the Roebling Gauge is used for measuring steel. Birmingham or Stubs Iron Gauge is used for measuring iron.

    Most of the sheet and wire gauges available through jewellery and lapidary supply sources will be the A.W.G. system.

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    is a mineral, a rock or a petrified material that is valuable, rare and often beautiful.
    When cut or faceted and polished it can be used in jewellery and is collectible. A few organic materials, like amber, coral and pearls are also considered gemstones.

    Some beautiful gemstones are too soft or too fragile to be used in jewellery, for example, single-crystal rhodochrosite, but are exhibited in museums and are sought by collectors of mineral or crystal specimens.

    Today's science of gemology gives much information about the physical properties and chemical composition of gemstones, gemstones are described and differentiated into different groups, species and varieties.

    Since ancient times it is widely believed that besides their alluring physical properties gemstones have significant metaphysical and healing properties as well.

    Traditionally, gemstones were classified into precious stones (cardinal gems) and semi-precious stones.

    Only five types of gemstones were considered precious: diamond, ruby, sapphire, emerald, and amethyst.

    In current usage by gemologists, all gems are considered precious, although four of the five original "cardinal gems" are usually-but not always-the most expensive.

    A gemstone is prized especially for great beauty or perfection. Hence, appearance is almost the most important attribute of gemstones.

    Their beauty must also be able to stand the test of time; if a gemstone is scratched or crumbled, it loses its value instantly.

    Characteristics that make a stone beautiful or desirable are color, unusual optical phenomena within the stone, an interesting inclusion such as a fossil, rarity, and sometimes the form of the natural crystal.

    It is unsurprising that diamond is prized highly as a gemstone, since it is the hardest substance known, and when faceted, it is able to reflect light with unsurpassed , intense fire and sparkle .

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    is a rock having a cavity lined with crystals.

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    is the term used for glass produced in Germany after the year 1948.
    A lot of glass makers of German origin had lived in Czechoslovakia for generations.

    After the second world war, their property and companies were confiscated and given to Czechs .

    They moved to Bavaria and called their new location Gablonz, which means Jablonec in Czech, the town they left.

    The glass they produced is very similar to the Czech glass of the same period, but the quality of the glass from Germany has far fewer defects and quality standards are higher.

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  • GILDING (glass)

    is the process of decorating glass by the use of gold leaf, gold paint, or gold dust.
    The gilding may be applied with brush, or amalgamated with mercury.

    It is then usually fixed to the glass by heat.

    Gold leaf may be picked up on a gather of hot glass.

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    is a style of ear pendant popular during the 17th and 18th centuries, in which three gem-set pendants are suspended from a central gem.

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    is the widest perimeter of a cut gemstone;
    the outermost edge formed at the point where the top section (crown) and the bottom section (pavilion) of the cut stone meet.

    Girdle is usually grasped or enclosed by the setting or mounting.

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    is a homogeneous material with a random, liquidlike (non-crystalline) molecular structure.
    Glass is a man-made substance, that can be produced in many of the numerous beautiful colors. and shapes.

    The processes of glass making have remained essentially the same since ancient times.

    It is obtained by fusing silicates with boric oxide, aluminium oxide, soda or potash and lime or phosphorus pentoxide.

    The manufacturing process requires that the raw materials be heated to a temperature sufficient to produce a completely fused melt, which, when cooled rapidly, becomes rigid without crystallizing.

    Glass is, however, brittle and can easily break into sharp shards.

    Its properties can be modified, or even changed entirely, with the addition of other compounds or heat treatment.

    Glass can be faceted, molded, pressed, and handcrafted. Methods of decoration include cutting, copper-wheel engraving, etching with hydrofluoric acid, enameling, gilding, and painting.

    Even with the availability of common glassware, lampworked glassware or hand-blown glass remains popular for its artistry.

    Glass beads are comparable in hardness to apatite, rhodonite and charoite. Sometimes glass is created naturally from volcanic magma.

    This glass is called obsidian.

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    is the process of shaping molten glass by blowing air into the mass of it at the end of a tub while the glass is in a semi-liquid state.

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  • GOLD

    is a precious metal that has been highly valued since ancient times.
    Usually colored golden yellow, but it's exact color depends on the types of alloy or impurities it contains.
    Gold is often intentionally alloyed with silver and copper, in order to change it's color, to make it harder and less expensive.
    Gold is often found in nature alloyed with other metals; when more than 20% of silver is present the alloy is called electrum.
    The gold content of an alloy is commonly stated in carats (or karats), a karat being 1/24 part by weight of the total mass.
    Pure gold is therefore 24 karats fine; an alloy that is 75% gold is 18 karats fine.
    Fineness is sometimes expressed in terms of parts per thousand; thus gold containing 10% of other metals is said to have a fineness of 900.

    Most gold is found in the metallic state in the form of dust, grains, flakes, or nuggets. It occurs, usually in association with silver or other metals, in quartz veins or lodes so finely disseminated that it is not visible.

    Pure gold (24 Kt) is very soft (hardness 2.5 on a Mohs' scale); it is the most malleable and ductile of all metals.
    This treasured metal is completely recyclable and virtually immune to the effects of air, water, and oxygen.

    Gold will not tarnish, rust, or corrode.

    Gold's electrical/heat conductivity, combined with above mentioned properties, have made it a vital substance for the manufacture of components used in a wide range of electronic tools,

    including medical equipment, laser technology, computers, telephones, cellular phones, and home appliances.

    Until recently, gold reserves formed the basis of world monetary systems.

    Gold has been known from prehistoric times and was possibly the first metal used by humans.

    It was highly valued and used for making jewellery, ornaments and coins.

    Sophisticated gold art objects and jewellery discovered by archaeologists in the Sumerian Royal Tombs at Ur, in what is now Southern Iraq, date back to around 3000 BC.

    Similarly, goldsmiths of the Chavin civilization in Peru were making ornaments by hammering and embossing gold by 1200 BC.

    In the Middle Ages alchemists sought to transmute baser metals into gold.

    The quest for gold stimulated European explorations and conquests in the western hemisphere, and its discovery has led to a gold rush.

    Gold is widely distributed on the earth; although large amounts are present also in seawater, the cost of current methods for recovering it exceeds its value.

    Since the 1880s South Africa has been the source for about two-thirds of the world's gold supply. The city of Johannesburg was built atop the world's greatest gold finds.

    Other major producers are Canada, USA (mines in South Dakota and Nevada supply two-thirds of gold used in the United States), Australia, China and Russia.

    Alleged metaphysical properties

    Among crystal healers gold is considered a highly effective balancing substance; it represents purity, harmony, spirituality, understanding, and attunement to nature.

    It has long been considered an attractor of positive energy, and a powerful healer.

    Gold is believed to balance energy fields and enhance one's intelligence.

    It has been used to attract wealth and happiness, and to amplify positive feelings.

    On a physical level, gold is thought to be particularly beneficial for the cardiovascular system and the nervous system.

    It has been used to treat conditions related to multiple sclerosis, paralysis, epilepsy, autism, dyslexia and skin disorders.


    24 Kt - 100% gold

    18 Kt - 75% gold

    14 Kt - 58.3 % gold

    12 Kt - 50% gold

    10 Kt - 41.7% gold

    Alloyed gold comes in many colors:

    yellow gold -
    silver and copper in same amounts

    white gold - nickel, zinc, copper, tin and manganese

    pink (rose) gold - copper with some silver

    green gold - high proportion of silver or cadmium

    blue gold - some iron
    gray gold - 15-20% iron

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    this term refers to a material (it can be base metal or sterling silver) on which a layer of gold has been bonded by fusing.
    The resulting ingot is rolled or drawn to make sheet and wire.

    In gold-filled products, the gold layer must be at least 1/20th (5%) of the overall product, by weight.

    Any purity of gold may be used; most gold-filled products are made with either 12k or 14k gold.

    The purity of gold used can be determined by the notation in front of the words gold-filled.

    14/20 gold-filled and 14k gold-filled both refer to a gold-filled product in which 14k gold has been bonded to the base metal or silver core.

    Likewise, 12/20 gold-filled and 12k gold-filled indicate that 12k gold has been used. to be classified as gold-filled, a piece must be at least 1/20 gold by weight.

    Gold-filled cannot be cast because it is a layered product and casting would mingle these separate layers and change the properties of the material.

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    The most important difference is that gold-filled items are very durable, and gold plated items are not.
    Gold-filled layer is 50 to 100,000 times thicker than regular gold plated layer and
    about 17 to 25,000 times thicker than heavy gold electroplated layer.
    Consequently, gold-fill treatment is much more durable than gold-plating.

    The layer of gold in gold-plating is only required to be seven-millionths of an inch thick, and is likely to wear quickly.

    The gold layer in an gold-filled product will not wear off, as it may in plated products. It is a lifetime product.

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    are transparent colorless glass beads lined with genuine gold.

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    is a base metal or sterling silver base product coated (by electroplating) with an thin layer of gold.
    Electroplated items are not lifetime products, the metal coating will wear off eventually depending on how often the product is worn and how well it is cared for.

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    is manmade glass with tiny copper dots visible throughout the stone.
    Goldstone is often mistaken for the sunstone, a feldspar mineral.
    Goldstone reportedly originated during alchemical experiments, in the process of trying to make gold out of other materials.

    A special process is needed to create the stone's metallic gleam.

    First, copper is melted into a batch of glass. The mass of glass is then held at a specific temperature for a length of time, and then the entire mass is allowed to cool.

    During the cooling, minute crystals or metal are created in the glass, giving it that unique sparkle.

    Nowadays the best examples come from China.

    Alleged metaphysical properties

    As far as metaphysical quality is concerned , goldstone is said to be more precious than usually supposed.

    It is considered a good deflector of unwanted energies, and is highly regarded as a protection stone.

    Goldstone is believed to be a powerful energy generator. Some say that it can store the energy of those who touch it, making it an excellent gift for loved ones who are far away.

    On a physical level goldstone is believed to strengthen the nervous system, facilitate tissue regeneration, and energize the entire physical body.

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    another name for Peyote Stitch

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    is a unit of weight used for diamonds and natural pearls.
    Four grains are equal to one carat.

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    is a type of enameling in which translucent enamel (fused glass) is applied over a metal surface that has been engraved.

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