are the internal imperfections of a gemstone; these are naturally-occurring features usually consisting of different materials which became trapped inside the gem during its growth. 
    They may consist of small, solid mineral particles, bubbles of gas or liquid-filled cavities of varying shapes.

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    is a transparent to opaque colored glass within transparent glass body of another color.

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    is simply a term used for glass produced in India.
    The Indians have made glass for centuries.

    Lately they have greatly improved their quality control and production skills.

    However, Indian lampworked glass seems to be much softer then European or American lampworked glass.

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    is a decorative technique whereby a small pieces of one material (it can be stone, shell, bone glass or metal) are inserted and partially or

    completely embedded into a larger piece of another material, in such way that the two materials make a level surface design.

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    is a method of engraving below the surface of the glass, gemstone or metal object to create ornamentation, the background being the highest surface.

    Intaglio is the reverse of a relief or cameo.

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    on glass beads

    is a rainbow like finish on glass beads that seems to change according to the angle from which it is viewed.

    This effect is achieved by the introduction of metallic substances into the batch or by spraying the surface with stannous chloride or lead chloride and reheating it in a reducing atmosphere.

    A term is usually applied to crystals or rhinestones that sparkle with a rainbow of lustrous, changing colors.

    Iridescent beads blend subtly, they pick up a variety of colors. enabling them to match with different colored apparel.

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    is the process whereby an item is exposed to radiation.
    Many stones (like kunzite) are irradiated in order to enhance their color.

    Being irradiated changes the crystal structure of the mineral by moving electrons.

    Irradiation techniques bombard the crystal with high-energy radiation (like gamma rays), producing a stone with very little radioactivity and a change of color.

    Some color. changes caused by Irradiation are permanent, others care unstable and be reversed by heating or exposure to sunlight.

    For example, colorless topaz changes to a cinnamon brown color. after being irradiated with cobalt-60 radiation, but the color fades as the stone is exposed to sunlight.

    A new method of irradiation changes clear topaz to a brilliant, non-fading blue.

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    is a very iridescent, metallic coating on opaque glass beads that comes in five traditional colors.: red, blue, green, purple, and brown.
    It is in use from around the year 1856. The beads are coated with a lacquer that is burned off to leave a metallic iridescent coating.

    Unlike the AB finish this one is done in an oven.

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    is a hard, smooth, white material from the tusks of elephants and sea mammals, used for beads and carved into statues.
    Harvesting ivory is illegal due to the near extinction of these animals.

    Synthetic ivory is made from celluloid, casein, and plastic.

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