is a semi-precious gemstone that ranges in color. from emerald green to pale green, to yellow, to white, to lilac, to brown to almost black.
    Two exquisite but different minerals are known as jade: jadeite and nephrite. The two minerals are relatively hard to distinguish from each other.
    Jade has a hardness of 6.5 - 7, the refractive index is 1.66 (jadeite)/1.62 (nephrite), and the specific gravity is 3.34.

    China and Japan are two major sources of jadeite, however, it is also mined in Australia, Asia, Europe, Canada, North America, South America and Russia.

    Jadeite is slightly harder of the two; it is usually used in jewellery production, an have the full range of jade's colors. Jadeite is often enhanced by dying and heating.

    Nephrite is slightly softer, often veined, and usually only green and creamy white; it is used in carvings, for making beautiful bowls and vases. Even today both are still called jade.

    Today jade is still valued for its beauty.

    Translucent jade is more highly valued than opaque jade. Its many colors. are appreciated, but its the emerald green color that jadeite produces so well, that is highly sought after by artwork collectors.

    This emerald green jade is called "Imperial Jade" and it is colored by chromium.

    Jade is often seen set as cabochons; stones with imperfections are often made into beads or carved (the imperfections are simply carved away).

    Alleged metaphysical properties

    Sometimes referred to as the "Virtuous One," jade is believed to bring longevity, fertility and good luck.

    It is a stone with intriguing history and it is known as a symbol of love and virtue.

    Jade is thought to fosters courage, encourages wisdom, clarity and nurturing; it brings devotion to ones purposes and realization of ones potential.

    Some crystal healers describe jade as a dream stone, it is said to help to remember and understand dreams.

    On a physical level jade is used to help strengthen the immune system and clean the blood.

    Since at least 2950 B.C., jade has been treasured in China as the royal gemstone - YU.

    The ancient Chinese believed jade was the essence of heaven and the earth, and carved jade into birds and beasts to use as items of worship.

    The Chinese even consumed powdered jade as a remedy for just about every ailment known, and even the dying drank it as a powerful embalming solution.

    In Central America, the Olmecs, Mayans and Toltecs also treasured jade and used it for carvings and masks.

    The Aztecs instituted a tax in jade, which unfortunately led to the recycling of earlier artworks.

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    is a translucent green glass that is designed to imitate jade.

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    is a term that refers to beautifully made Japanese vintage and antique glass products that include miniature lampworked fruit, vegetables, flowers, birds and fish beads.

    Similar beads are still made today but they are pressed and very uniform.

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    is an translucent to opaque gemstone, a type of cryptocrystalline variety of the mineral quartz.
    Jasper is a variety of chert, which is the general term applied to granular cryptocrystalline quartz varieties.

    It is found in many colors., including white, brown, yellow, red, and green; it is often speckled or striped in colorful patterns derived from other minerals present (usually a finely disseminated hematite or goethite).

    Jasper is sometimes dyed to resemble lapis lazuli and misleadingly called "Swiss lapis."
    Jasper has been used as gemstones and other ornamental objects for thousands of years.

    The gem was a favourite in the ancient world, and the name jasper can be traced back in Hebrew, Assyrian, Persian, Greek and Latin.

    The Greek origin of the word jasper, iaspis, means "spotted stone."

    Some of the earliest primitive stone tools found, fashioned by man's ancestors 2.5 million years ago in Ethiopia, were made of quartz varieties such as jasper or chert.

    These materials were used because of their hardness and their isotropic brittleness which made it possible to shape the tools with relative ease.

    Jasper has a hardness of 6.5 to 7.0, specific gravity of 2.58-2.91, and index of refraction is 1.54-1.55.

    It is mined in North Africa, Sicily, France, Germany, India, Venezuela, USA, Brazil and many more countries.

    Orbicular or Ocean Jasper is a variety of jasper produced from only one mine near Marovato, Madagascar.

    The deposit, being located at the edge of the ocean, can only be seen and collected at low tide.

    This remote area has no roads so the material must be transported by boat.

    Technically considered "Orbicular Jasper" in reference to its colorful orbs.

    Orbicular jasper's distinctive patterns are made up of round or spherical inclusions of contrasting colors. floating in solid jasper.

    The orbs can range in diameter from a millimetre to a centimetre, and frequently show a particularly dramatic concentric banding.

    How orbicular jasper forms is still a scientific mystery.

    Jasper gems should be cleaned with a soft, dry cloth since its polish might wash away in water.

    Alleged metaphysical properties

    Sometimes referred to as the "Talisman", jasper is a gem reputed to balance one's physical, emotional and intellectual states, bringing stability and sense of security.

    Crystal healers have traditionally used it for enhanced diagnosis.

    Jasper is said to help treat tissue deterioration of the internal organs, and disorders of the kidneys, spleen, bladder, liver and stomach.

    It is said to foster mineral assimilation and sooth the nerves.

    Some use it to protect against snake and spider bites.

    Jaspers of all colors are believed to have some properties of enhancing emotional balance, nurturing, and protection.

    However each different color or type of jasper also has additional, specific qualities when used alone.

    Brown jasper
    is used for eliminating pollutants and toxins from the body. It is said to benefit various ailments that result from environmental pollution.
    It is believed to boost the immune system and foster ecological awareness.

    Red jasper
    is considered an intensely protective stone. It's protective qualities emphasize survival and physical protection.
    This stone is reported to work much like bloodstone in its link to the circulatory system.
    Beneficial in battling diseases of the blood and detoxifying blood-rich organs like the liver. Help with blood, relieve anaemia, stop bleeding, heal rashes and wounds.

    Yellow jasper
    is said to be beneficial to the endocrine glands.

    Green jasper
    is used for curing ailments of the respiratory tract.

    Leopard Skin jasper
    is believed to give protection during traveling.

    Rainbow jasper
    energizes life force and rejuvenates.

    Zebra jasper
    is used to help relieve stress, and is considered good aid during meditation.

    Orbicular/ocean jasper
    is said to help nutritional stabilization, and is believed beneficial for digestive organs.

    Brecciated jasper
    is thought to be an animal-friendly stone. It enhances animal healing and communication with animals.

    Jasper amulets were engraved with passages from the Book of the Dead by the ancient Egyptians to procure safe passage for the deceased in the realm of the dead.
    It was considered a sacred stone by Native American Indians, and was often worn by shamans for protection during their magical rituals.

    In the fourth century, the wearing of green jasper was said to bring rain and to cure snake bites.

    In medieval times jasper was said to give the wearer the power to heal insanity and to heal those possessed by devils.

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  • JET

    is a lustrous black organic material, a form of fossilized lignite coal, similar to coal but much harder.
    When burnt with a red-hot needle, jet smells like coal.
    A lustrous black stone, jet is used in jewellery in form of beads and cut as cabochon buttons and carvings. Its extremely light weight makes it ideal for large pieces of jewellery.

    Black glass and plastics are often used to imitate jet.

    Best way to distinguish the real from imitation is easy:
    in the first place glass is much heavier and harder than jet, secondly, jet is warm to the touch and becomes electrically charged when rubbed with wool.

    Jet has a hardness of 2.5-4 (quite soft), a specific gravity of 1.30-1.35, and the refractive index is 1.66.

    England is the major source of jet, but other suppliers are Canada, France, Germany, Spain, Russia and USA

    Best way to clean jet is with warm, soapy water.

    Alleged metaphysical properties

    For centuries jet has been considered powerful protection against illness and the evil eye and violence.

    This gem is believed to help draw out all sorts of negative energy.

    It is considered especially useful for those who feel tormented and imprisoned by unreasonable fears.

    Jet is thought to promote insight and realism, to help control mood swings and fight deep depression.

    Some believe it can help stabilize one's finances.

    Amulets of jet have been found together with amber in ancient European ruins.

    In the 16th century, jet was believed to be black amber and commonly used in rosary beads.

    In the Victorian England jet acquired its fame and identity as mourning jewellery.

    The Pueblo Indians were known for burying jet with their dead for protection in the afterlife.

    Many cultures, including American Indians, still use jet for prayer beads and religious sculpture.

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    (spelled jewelry in USA)

    is a prevalent name for ornamental articles of personal adornment, typically made with gems and precious metals.
    However, jewellery can and has been made out of almost every kind of material.

    Examples include rings, necklaces, bracelets, cuff links, and pins as well as items like hair ornaments or body piercing jewellery.

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    is a style of architecture and decorative arts also known as art nouveau, popular in German-speaking areas of Europe during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

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    is a circular metal ring split open in one place. It is used to connect two or more pieces of chain or other findings.

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