is a beading stitch in which a row of beads is sewn together, one bead on top of the other, resembling a ladder.

    It is often used as the first row in brick stitch.

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    is the process of making glass beads by hand using a torch to melt and shape the glass.
    Early lampworking was done in the flame of an oil lamp, with the artist blowing air into the flame through a pipe.

    Most artists today use torches that burn either propane or natural gas for the fuel gas, with either air or pure oxygen as the oxidizer.

    After designing a piece, a lampworker must carefully plan how to construct it.

    Once ready to begin, the lampworker slowly introduces glass rod and tubing into the flame so that the pieces won't shatter from thermal shock.

    The glass is heated until molten, merged with other pieces, and shaped with various tools.

    All parts of the workpiece must be kept hot, at similar temperatures, or else they can crack or shatter.

    Once finished, the piece must be annealed in an oven, or else it will eventually crack or shatter.

    In addition to artwork, lampworking is used to create scientific tools, particularly for chemistry.

    Although the art form has been practiced since ancient times, it flowered in Murano, Italy in the 1300s, and spread from there to the rest of Europe.

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    are beads made individually by melting narrow rods of glass by hand over an open flame (usually a torch).
    The glass is wrapped around a thin metal rod, which when removed leaves the hole through the bead.

    Many effects can be achieved through using various colors of glass and various techniques.

    In order to make sure the glass does not crack as it cools, a kiln is often used to cool the beads slowly - this is called annealing, and results in stronger beads.

    Lampworked glass beads are made in a wide variety of colors, shapes, and designs, including millefiori, rose-like overlay beads, aventurine glass, and many others.

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    Is an expert on gemstones. minerals, amber, shell, pearl, jet, coral, horn, bone and glass and the art of cutting and engraving them.
    The word lapidary means "concerned with stones".

    Diamond cutters are generally not referred to as lapidaries, due to their highly specialized techniques which are required to work diamond successfully.

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    is a rich blue opaque, semi-precious stone, composed of grains of several blue minerals, including lazurite and sodalite.

    That's why lapis is a rock and not a mineral (to be a true mineral it would have one constituent only).

    It has a matrix of calcite (which can decreases its value) and speckles of pyrite (which can increase its value), and it is distinctively fluorescent.

    Lapis lazuli is one of the oldest of all gems ever to be used and worn as jewellery with a history of use stretching back 7,000 years.

    The finest color is intense blue, lightly dusted with small flecks of golden pyrite, shining inclusions that twinkle like stars.

    There should be no white calcite veins and the pyrite inclusions should be small. Stones that contain too much calcite or pyrite are not as valuable.

    Small patches of pyrite are an important help in identifying the stone as genuine and do not detract from its value.

    The rich blue color is due to the sulphur inherent in the structure of lazurite. Lazurite is resistant to atmospheric gases and light-fast (light won't fade it).

    Lapis lazuli derives its name from the Latin 'lapis', which means stone, and from the Persian 'lazhward', which means blue.

    It has a hardness of 5.5 and specific gravity of 2.4 to 2.9.

    Inferior lapis lazuli is often dyed to deepen and improve its color;
    Swiss lapis is not Lapis lazuli at all, it is dyed jasper.
    Denim lapis is relatively pale, low-grade, inexpensive lapis from Chile; it has the color of denim cloth because of calcite inclusions (which whiten the color and lower the value).

    The finest lapis has traditionally come from the Badakshan area of northeastern Afghanistan.

    This source of lapis may be the oldest continually worked mines in the world; the same mines operating today having supplied the lapis of the pharaohs.

    In addition to the Afghan deposits, lapis has been found in Pakistan and (in lower qualities) in the Andes Mountains of Chile.

    Other less important sources are the Russia, Angola, Egypt, Myanmar, USA and Canada.

    This gemstone is easily scratched or chipped, and water can dissolve its protective coating and dull its sheen, so clean it with a soft, dry cloth.

    Alleged metaphysical properties

    Lapis lazuli is said to have existed since before time was born. Old Egyptians believed this stone to be a "Stargate".

    Sometimes referred to as the stone of "Total Awareness" Lapis lazuli is believed to greatly improve and enhance one's comprehension, insight, awareness and intelligence; to impart timeless wisdom, bring serenity and self-acceptance.

    It stimulates spiritual, emotional, mental and physical clarity by balancing the male/female energies within (yin-yang).

    Lapis lazuli is reputed to facilitate meditation and help establish a connection between the physical and celestial, encouraging one into exploring unknown mysteries and esoteric ideas.

    Some believe that it helps releasing old karmic patterns. 

    Among crystal healers Lapis lazuli is considered great help in curing depression, insomnia, recurring fevers, eyesight and ear problems, disorders of the throat, bone marrow, lungs and immune system.

    Today people around the world consider it to be a stone of truth, openness, friendship, and inner tranquility.

    The countless necklaces and artifacts crafted from lapis lazuli found in ancient sites are a clear indication that the people of Mesopotamia, Egypt, Persia, Greece and Rome cherished this deep blue gemstone.

    As inscribed in the 140th chapter of the Egyptian Book of the Dead, lapis lazuli, in the shape of an eye set in gold, was considered an amulet of great power by ancient Egyptians and was highly prized by the pharaohs.

    Powdered lapis was favoured by Egyptian ladies as a cosmetic eye shadow.

    It was also used by the Assyrians and Babylonians for seals.

    Many cultures worshipped it as a holy stone, especially in the Orient, where it was believed to contain magical powers.

    The stone was introduced to Europe by Alexander the Great.

    The Romans believed that lapis was a powerful aphrodisiac.

    In the Middle Ages, it was thought to keep the limbs healthy, and free the soul from error, envy and fear.

    Lapis lazuli was once used as a pigment for oil paintings.

    Ground to a powder and laboriously processed to remove impurities and isolate the component lazurite, it forms the pigment ultramarine.

    Many of the blues in painting from medieval Illuminated manuscripts to Renaissance panels were derived from lapis lazuli.

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    is a long necklace in which one end passes through a loop on the other end and can slide freely, like a lasso, and does not need a clasp.

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    Is a frosty glittery finish on metal surface, applied with a laser.

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    This term refers to the the use of a laser to remove inclusions from inside a gem by "drilling" or burning a fine hole to the depth of the inclusion.
    In some cases the inclusion is evaporated and in others it may be bleached out.

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    Is jewellery strung on a thin leather cord. Pendants, beads, shell, feathers, and/or sharks teeth are strung on leather to make interesting necklaces and bracelets.

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  • LIME

    is calcined limestone, which, added to the glass batch in small quantities, gives stability.
    Before the 17th century, when its beneficial effects became known, lime was introduced fortuitously as an impurity in the raw materials.

    Insufficient lime can cause crizzling.

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    are metallic or other colored coatings on the interior (hole) surface of a transparent bead.
    The effect of a color lining is also sometimes achieved through a colored inclusion closely surrounding the hole.

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    is the phrase used to describe small tubular silver/gold beads that are strung continuously together on

    multi-strand necklaces to give a very soft look, of a fluid , cascading strings of silver; hence the name "liquid silver" or “liquid gold.”

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    is a clasp shaped like a delicate little lobster claw. These clasps are especially good for bracelets, as they can be managed one-handed.

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  • LOOM

    is a device on which beads are woven. Beading looms come in many sizes, and are made of either metal or wood.
    A small, basic looms are inexpensive can be used for weaving belts, bracelets, and other small jewellery.

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    is a type of beadwork in which beads are woven together on a loom.

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    is a synthetic material, a transparent thermoplastic acrylic resin employed in paints, enamels, and primers.
    It is denser and heavier than plastic and is usually finished without any seams or knobs, signs that indicate injection or molding.

    Lucite is used extensively in costume jewellery because it can be colored and textured to resemble costly components.

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    or Lustre

    is a general term describing the way light interacts with the surface of a crystal, rock or mineral beads.

    The term is also used to describe other items with a particular sheen (like silk, satin, or metals).

    Luster is also a uniform, sparkling, shiny metallic effect on the surface of a transparent, translucent or opaque glass beads.

    The word lustre originates from the Latin word lux, meaning "light", and generally implies radiance, gloss, or brilliance.

    The luster depends on the nature of the bead's surface reflectivity.

    Some types of luster include: adamantine (also called brilliant or diamond like); earthy (with little reflectivity- also called dull, like shale or clay),

    greasy (like nepheline or apatite), metallic (also known as splendent, like pyrite or marcasite), resinous (like amber), pearly (with an iridescent reflectivity, like pearls or mica),

    pitchy (tarry minerals that are radioactive, like uraninite), silky (with a fibrous structure, like some tiger's eye or satin spar),

    vitreous (also known as glassy, like olivine, transparent quartz, or obsidian), and waxy (like halite or turquoise).

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    on glass beds

    is achieved in an fairly small oven. In the oven, beads are placed on shelves that can be shook to vibrate the beads.

    The beads are heated to about 300 degrees centigrade. Gas jets on the bottom emit a gas of vaporized metallic salts.

    If the shelves are shaken fairly fast the lustre coating is even. The finish is speckled and metallic.

    Many glass artists today buy lustre powders and roll the glass in it.

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