is a natural volcanic glass that is usually black, but is occasionally red, brown, gray, green (rare), dark with "snowflakes," or even clear.
    Most obsidian is 50-70 percent silica. It is not a true mineral because it is not crystalline, therefore it is often classified as a mineraloid.

    This glassy, lustrous mineraloid is formed when viscous lava (from volcanos) cools rapidly.

    Some inclusions could be bubbles or crystals, creating a random pattern such as snowflake.

    Obsidian is commonly used for ornamental purposes, for it possesses the peculiar property of presenting a different appearance according to the manner in which it is cut. When cut in one direction it is of a beautiful jetty black; when cut across another direction it is glistening gray.

    It has a hardness of 5 and a specific gravity of 2.35.

    Major sources of obsidian include Iceland, Italy, Hawaii, Japan and Java.

    It is fairly fragile, just slightly harder than window glass. It scratches very easily and sharp blows are likely to crack it.

    Alleged metaphysical properties

    Sometimes referred to as the "Black Velvet" stone , obsidian is said to be a powerful healer that keeps the energy well grounded while clearing subconscious blocks.

    It is said to bring deeper understanding and an experience of silence and detachment.

    On a physical level obsidian is reputed to beneficially influence the stomach and the intestines.

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    is an old Iranian turquoise term for a very high quality, sky blue and veinless turquoise that retains it color

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  • ONYX

    is a variety of chalcedony, a cryptocrystalline form of quartz.
    It is a form of agate with parallel banding.
    The only difference from regular agate is that the bands of which it is composed are parallel and regular. Onyx occurs naturally in black and white, brown and rarely in red .

    It is usually cut as a cabochon, or into beads, and it is also used for intaglios and cameos. Some onyx is natural but much is produced by the staining of agate.

    Onyx has a hardness of 7 and specific gravity of 2.65 - 2.66.

    The main sources of onyx are India and South America, but it is also found in China, Madagascar, Mexico and the USA.

    Store it carefully, onyx may chip or scratch rather easily.

    Alleged metaphysical properties

    This stone is good for balancing male and female polarities and for grounding.

    Onyx is also believed to help eliminate neurological disorders, and sharpen the wits of the wearer.

    It is used to help change habits, and it has beneficial effect on concentration.

    On a physical level, onyx is used to strengthen the bone marrow and the heart, and improve skin, nails and hair.

    It is said that onyx can assist those who fear death or who faced with death in some way.

    Onyx is thought to make the wearer more eloquent, and thus it is worn for public speaking.

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  • OPAL

    is a luminous and iridescent, gemstone, frequently with inclusions of many colors ("fire").
    It is composed of noncrystalline (amorphous) silica and up to 13 % water and is a species of quartz.

    Opal is considered to be a mineraloid, rather than a full mineral, because its structure is not truly crystalline.

    There are three major types of opals: common opal, precious opal and fire opal.

    The most striking quality of the precious opal is its rich play of a rainbow-like iridescence caused by tiny crystals of cristobalite;

    it diffracts light at various wavelengths, creating multiple colors

    The common opal, on the other hand, has a lesser play of colors

    Most opal is more than 60 million years old, and dates back to the Cretaceous period.

    It probably derives its name from the Sanskrit word for precious stone: upala.

    Opals have a hardness of 5.5 to 6.5 and a specific gravity of 1.98-2.50.

    A large fraction of the world's opal of tremendous variety and beauty comes from Australia. The town of Coober Pedy, in particular, is a major source.

    But opals are found in many other places worldwide, including Kenya, Czechoslovakia, Brazil, Peru, Honduras, Mexico, Canada, and the USA.

    Some opals are treated with oil, wax or resin to enhance their finish. Opals of all varieties have also been imitated or synthesized experimentally and commercially.

    Many opals have a high water content - they can dry out and crack if they are not cared for properly.

    In addition to cracking, loss of water causes loss of iridescence, therefore they might need to be oiled regularly to keep the water inside.

    Ultrasonic cleaners, metal polish, detergents that dry the gem, acids and any strong solvents should be avoided.

    Opals should be protected from heat and strong light and stored in damp cotton wool.

    Alleged metaphysical properties

    Sometimes referred to as the "Rainbow Stone" because of its iridescent flashes, opal is said to represents intensity.

    Excellent stone for progress, expansion and development opal is believed to enhance imagination and creativity.

    This gemstone is reputed to help connect the conscious and subconscious forces in a person life and thus open the way for better self understanding.

    It is great stone for enhancing contemplation and communication skills.

    On a physical level, some crystal healers use opal to stimulate the pineal and pituitary glands.

    It is believed to aid in the healing of eye diseases, in memory improvement and release of inhibitions.

    Some say this stone balances metabolism and helps those with fatigue.

    The old Romans considered this gemstone to be one of good fortune, revering it as a powerful aid to prophecy.

    The Russians, on other hand, viewed opal as nothing but bad luck.

    Opal was treasured in the Middle Ages and was called ophthalmios, or "eye stone," due to a widespread belief that it helped eyesight.

    Blond women wore opal necklaces to protect their hair from losing its color, and some thought the gemstone's effect on sight could render the wearer invisible.

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    is a milky white/blue type of iridescence.

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    is a milky white glass that mimics opals.

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    means not transparent or translucent, blocking the passage of light.

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    is a necklace that has no clasp; it is worn by tying the ends together around the neck. Open-ended necklaces usually have ornaments, like beads or tassels, at the ends.

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    is a term applied to jewellery or accessories that denotes a longer than normal length.

    Opera length necklaces are generally over 120 cm or 48 inches long and opera length gloves go all the way up the arm (also referred to as 16 button).

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    is a chemical process in which oxygen atoms bond to atoms of material (like metal) and electrons are transferred from the

    oxidized material to the reduced material resulting in a darkening or other surface changes on the of most metals.

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