is a method of cutting rectangular stones so that they have the sparkle of brilliant cut round stones.
    The shape is a rectangle with the corners clipped off - the length:width ratio is usually from 1.5:1 to 1.75:1.

    This cut has from 58-70 facets; it was invented in the 1970's.

    The top of the stone is emerald cut (with about 25 facets above the girdle), but the bottom of the stone has brilliant cut facets (with about 36 facets below the girdle).

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    is a 2mm thick rayon or satin cord with silky texture, in bright colors, used to string larger beads.

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    is an old method of fusing stones made from chips. Used now to describe amber re-melted and fused from otherwise unusable pieces.

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    is a measure of how light is refracted in a substance (like a gemstone).
    Diamonds for instance have a high index and refract light very quickly, hence the glitter they give off.

    Glass beads have variable levels of refraction.
    Lead in the glass will dramatically raise the index of refraction.
    In doubly-refractive stones, the light is split into two light rays when it enters the stone, and the rays travel in different paths - so these stones have more than one refractive index.

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    is a decorating silversmith technique whereby a relief design is punched into thin metal from the back.

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    is a recent designation for the period in the forties when large scale, stylized geometric forms, drapes, bows or ribbons were all the rage.

    Pink Gold, set with colored stones, sometimes in floral forms was common.

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    are highly reflective, artificial gems made from either glass or rock crystal often with facets that sparkle in imitation of a diamond.

    The best rhinestones today are made of highly reflective leaded glass which is faceted and polished and are usually foil backed to improve the reflective quality.

    The name comes from the Rhine river, which was the source of quartz crystals that were originally used in making rhinestones.

    Because rhinestones could be made to imitate diamonds, the name rhinestone was applied to artificial gems made from paste, glass, or gem quartz and as a result often carries a connotation of showbiz glitz.

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    a.k.a. Manganese Spar, Inca Rose
    is a soft and brittle, light pink to rose-red mineral, consisting mainly of manganese carbonate.
    It often contains calcium, iron, magnesium, and zinc and has a pearly or vitreous luster.

     Usually seen as translucent to opaque pink, often in banded patterns with layers or areas of white, gray, brown or yellow; also occurs in transparent pink to dark red.

    The name Rhodochrosite comes from the Greek "rhodon" for rose, and "chros" for color.

    Rhodochrosite has a hardness of 3.5 - 4.5 (glass has a hardness of 4), the refractive index is 1.597-1.817 and the specific gravity is 3.60.

    It is used in jewellery, for carvings and figurines, but he lack of hardness can make it lose its polish easily. Rhodochrosite should only be cleaned in cool, soapy water.

    Rhodochrosite is found in Argentina, Peru, Mexico, Namibia, South Africa, Russia, Spain, Italy, Germany, Romania Poland, Newfoundland and USA.

    Rhodochrosite is not enhanced.

    Alleged metaphysical properties

    Crystal healers sometimes refer to rhodochrosite as the "Stone of Love and Balance" and the "Brave Stone."

    It is said to be of great help for those in need of balance, and those trying to overcome emotional trauma, extreme physical stress and mental breakdown.

    Rhodochrosite is believed to contain pulsating electrical energy which emits the strongest power in the universe, the power of love.

    It bestows enthusiasm and dynamism to the mind while blending courage, will power and fortitude.

    It removes tendencies toward avoidance or denial and enhances willingness to both accept and to integrate new life situations.

    It is also believed by some to arouse passion and encourage eroticism and spontaneous expression of feelings.

    In chakra balancing rhodochrosite relates to the solar plexus area.

    Since the solar plexus rests midway between the upper and lower chakras, this stone when placed there helps to balance the energy flow between the upper and lower parts of the body.

    When it's placed there it also helps to release the emotional stresses which inhibit breathing.

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    is a purple-red to pink-red variety of garnet. It is a combination of almandine and pyrope.
    This silicate stone has a hardness of 7-7.5 and a specific gravity of 3.5 - 4.3.
    Rhodolite is found in the USA, Zimbabwe, Kenya, and Sri Lanka (Ceylon).

    It is not enhanced.

    Rhodolite is said to facilitate meditation, enhance intuition, and to inspire love.

    For detailed metaphysical properties of Rhodolite see garnet.

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    is an opaque, deep rosy pink to lavender mineral with black manganese veins, consisting of crystalline manganese silicate.
    It is used as an ornamental stone although It doesn't take a good polish, and beads will have a rather flat finish.

    Rhodonite has a hardness of 5.5 to 6.5.

    Important sources of this gemstone include Brazil, Mexico, Peru, USA, Canada, Russia and South Africa.

    Rhodonite is insoluble in acids. Most cleaning methods are safe for rhodonite (ultrasonic, etc), but like with all gemstones, avoid rough handling and extreme heat.

    Alleged metaphysical properties

    Sometimes referred to as the “Heart Stone” and the “Singer's Stone," rhodonite is said to be a perfect stone for activating love energies in oneself and others.

    It is reputed to clear and activate the heart chakra, to dispel tension and anxiety, resolve conflicts & to help one establish inner balance and achieve one's greatest potential.

    Rhodonite is also said to improve sound-sensitivity, enhance gracefulness and elegance.

    Many also believe it to aid in healing blood disorders, as well as disorders of the nervous system, the liver and the pancreas.

    It inspires one to use one's talents for the good of others.

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    is a beading stitch in which beads are sewn at right angles to each other.

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  • RING

    is a metal circlet worn on the finger, arm or neck. but in other forms also worn on the nose, ear, ankle, neck, etc.
    The word also refer to any band of metal used to connect, hold or hang something, also called a hoop, band or circle.
    There are an infinite number of kind of rings.

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    Ring sizes are given different numbers in different countries. See the overview table of the European, British, USA and Japanese size numbers.

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  • ROCK

    is a substance composed of minerals and classified according to mineral composition.
    Rocks are generally classified by the processes that formed them, and are thus separated into igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks.

    Igneous rocks are formed from molten magma, sedimentary rocks by deposition and compression of particulate matter, and metamorphic rocks by either of the first two categories after being changed by the effects of temperature and pressure.

    In cases where organic material leaves behind an imprint of itself in rock, the result is known as a fossil.

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    is a transparent, crystalline gemstone. It is the purest the form of quartz.

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    are square-holed, silver- (or gold) lined seed beads (usually size11/0 or 10/0). Although the term is often used loosely to describe any faceted seed bead.

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  • ROD

    is a monochrome segment of glass cut from a trail.

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    a.k.a. double d'or
    is a laminate obtained by pressing a thin leaf of gold onto a copper plate.
    Traditionally, gold dust was mixed with mercury and painted on. The mercury evaporates and a thin layer of gold is left.

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    is a small disc bead used as a spacer in beadwork.

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    is a string of beads often in a form of a necklace, used for counting prayers in different cultures and religions.
    Rosary can be made very simple or highly jewelled and ornamented.
    Rosary is derived from the Latin word, "rosarium", or rose garden.

    The rose garden in medieval times was a place for prayers. It is likely this practice was the foundation for the term "rosary".

    For Christians the red rose symbolizes the blood of Christ and the white rose the purity of the Virgin Mary.

    Among the Christian today, a full rosary consisting of 150 beads is called a chaplet or Psalter.

    This number corresponds to the number of Psalms.

    Fifteen larger beads divide the whole into decades or groups of ten. This emulates the original finger counting method for tracking prayer.

    The small decade or Ave beads are used to say ‘Hail Mary" prayers. While the large separator or paternoster beads are utilized in the "Our Father " and Gloria" prayers.

    Each decade represents a subject or mystery in the life of Jesus and Mary.

    See prayer beads and rudraksha.

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    is an opaque to translucent pale pink to rose red variety of macrocrystalline quartz, used for jewellery, ornaments and healing.
    Composed of silicon dioxide, rose quartz stones most often occur as large, chunky masses rather than its rare crystal forms.

    It has a hardness of 7; refractive index is 1.544-1.553 with a specific gravity of 2.66.

    Major sources are found in Brazil, Madagascar, India, Germany and USA.

    Rose quartz has been used as a gemstone and as other ornamental and religious objects for thousands of years. Historically, it is a symbol of love and beauty.

    Most rose quartz on the market has been dyed to maintain a uniform color.

    Alleged metaphysical properties

    Often called the "Love Stone," rose quartz is said to be a stone of unconditional love that opens the heart chakra.

    Emotionally, this gemstone is believed to balance and rejuvenate; to bring gentleness, forgiveness, compassion, kindness, tolerance, inner peace and harmony.
    It is attributed the power to encourage and help reconciliation with others.
    Rose quartz is said believed to enhance one's sensitivity to beauty, art and music.

    Physically, this gemstone is used to benefit the heart, circulatory system, fertility, headaches, kidney disease, migraines, sexual dysfunction, sinus problems, throat problems, ear aches, depression and addictions.

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  • RUBY

    is a precious stone of rare beauty, a variety of the mineral corundum, a family that also includes sapphire.
    The rich ruby color. is caused mainly by chromium with possible modification of color. by iron and titanium, and it ranges from the classic deep red to pink to purple to brown.

    Although rubies are valued according to several characteristics including size, color, clarity and cut -- color. is the ruby's most important feature, and transparency is secondary only.

    Rubies are exceptionally rare and extremely hard; only diamonds are harder. The biggest ruby in the word is the Raviratna, which weighs 3,600 carats.

    All natural rubies have imperfections in them. The fewer the number and the less obvious the imperfections, the more valuable the ruby is.
    Nevertheless, inclusions don't necessarily affect the gemstone's quality, but rather are the gemstone's fingerprints.
    If there are no imperfections it is suspected of that the gem is artificially made and its status as a priceless gem is therefore not assured.
    However, imperfections and impurities can be removed by controlled heating; some rubies have fissures or surface breaks that are filled with a glasslike by-product of the heating process.

    Ruby has a hardness of 9 and a specific gravity of 3.9 - 4.1. The refractive index is 1.762-1.777.

    Nowadays rubies are only rarely mined around the world.
    They are most often found in Myanmar, Sri Lanka and Thailand, India, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Cambodia, Madagascar, Malawi, Kenya, Tanzania, Zimbabwe (Rhodesia), Australia, Brazil and USA.

    Ruby was the first mineral to be produced by commercial synthesis and dates to the 1880s.

    Laboratory-produced rubies may have no imperfections and are comparatively inexpensive.
    Many rubies on the market are synthetic, but most require gemological testing to distinguish between natural and synthetic.

    Despite their superb hardness, natural rubies are still subject to chipping and fracture if handled roughly.

    Alleged metaphysical properties

    Ruby has been referred to as the "Heart Stone".
    Among ayurvedic healers it has been known as the "Servant of the Servants", and for centuries it has been the symbol of devotion and love.

    Throughout history ruby has been attributed with great variety of beneficial properties.

    It is believed to enhance one's creativity, awareness and intuition & to inspire love. It is also reputed to boost confidence, self-esteem and courage, and to stimulate leadership qualities.

    Ruby is said to be a powerful healing stone, a superb tonic to the body and spirit.

    Traditionally this gemstone is used to help improve vitality and life force.

    Ruby is also said to have been helpful in treating heart and circulatory disease, blood disorders, reproductive organs, chronic fatigue and other ailments dealing with listlessness.

    Many attribute it the power to stimulate sexual desire and energy, but also to transmute them for spiritual purposes when intended.

    As a tool for meditation, rubies are extremely powerful for healing chakras (especially the first chakra), and
    they are said to bless the wearer with health, wealth and wisdom; to encourages integrity, selfless service and spiritual devotion.

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    are beads made of the seeds of the Rudraksha fruit obtained from rudraksha trees (ELAEOCARPUS GANITRUS ROXB.) mostly found in Java, Sumatra, Borneo, Bali, Timor, Iran, and Nepal.
    Rudraksha beads are classified on the basis of the number of "mukhis" - the clefts and furrows - they have on the surface. Most beads have something in between 1 to 15 mukhis.

    Among some Vedic astrologers it is believed that rudrakshas with different number of mukhis please different planets.
    Therefore, each bead has a different effect on a person, depending on the number of mukhis it has.

    The word 'Rudraksha' comes from the Sanskrit words, 'Rudra' ( one of the names for Lord Shiva) and 'Aksha' (teardrop).

    Mythological tales have it that the rudraksha plant was born out of Lord Shiva's tear drops. Ancient Vedic scriptures mention the wonderful powers of the rudraksha.

    For thousands of years they have been worn by sages and yogis of India and the Himalayas.

    Necklaces made of rudraksha are supposed to have profound astrological and health benefits.

    According to the ayurvedic healers, wearing rudraksha can have a positive effect on the heart and nerves; relieve from stress and depression.

    It is also known for its anti ageing effect, and electromagnetic and inductive properties.

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